Built next to last, western slopes of the Symbol conditions, close Paggaio and the mouth of the river Struma, the Karyani or Karyani, as it is commonly known in modern Greek language, is a village inhabited by Greeks, that the beginnings of history are lost back centuries.
In the area of the village found clear traces of Paleolithic installation, (before 10.000 e.g.), including the Acropolis in the ancient hamlet of Piero Fagrita, located on the hill "Cannon", who rises above and left of Orphani, for anyone who goes there from Galipsos.
In the Neolithic period (after the 7.000 e.g.) and to the Late Bronze Age, among 31 known settlements in Eastern Macedonia, (which include and inhabited caves), included the settlement existed on the hill of the ancient Galipsos, which is the coastal Via Egnatia, at "Aeidarokastro", and a low point of Akropotamos.
Much later, But much before the time of Homer Thracians, the biggest, According to Strabo, known sex of antiquity, even reached up to Olympus and Chalkidiki and rushed to help the Trojans in the Trojan War. Therefore, they held and the whole between the Nestos and Struma region and consequently Pangeo, that until the time of King Philip II of Macedon’ considered Thrace.
around 750 e.g.. both important Thracian tribes, who played a dominant role in the events Paggeo in historical times, the Idwnes or the Edoni Pieres, still inhabited at ancestral home, the first in beyond the Strymon Mygdonia, (and north Paggeo and the east coast of Chalkidiki and Thassos) and the second at the foot of Olympus, the until now called Pieria. But already from the 7th century BC. and then expelled from the first Macedonian kings, the hand Piero from Perdika 1st, They are not Hedoni or Hedoni by Alexander the 1st and forced to move in the proximal region of Strymon and settle, some Pieres in South Pieria Valley stretching pangeo, east to the current Eleftheroupoli and south up to the sea, since then they took their name was called Pierikos Bay, while Thucydides tells us that in their new homeland inhabited the Fagrita other passages, are not Hedoni in the lower valley of the Struma and the northwestern Paggaio. Yet other Thracian tribes lived on and around Pangeo, long before the coming Hedoni and Pierre. Was Satres, who lived on the tops of, the Odomantes, the Panama, the Dersaioi, who lived in the north and others.
I make a historic leap and come back to ultimate antiquity, to point out that as early as the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age, but major in the Iron Age, Thassos linked culturally with the prehistoric settlements of the opposite coast, such as the settlement of Akropotamos, ancient Galipsos, of Dikili Tash, of Sitagroi etc.. In the last centuries of this period and in particular before the 7th century BC., so in Thassos Thracian tribes lived and palm settlers, their relationships with the opposite shore is confident and up to the first quarter of the 5th b.c.. century all they exploit themselves and freely mines dig Matter in region Paggeo, (ή, by younger historians, in the region of mountains Basin).
In the second half of the 7th century BC. and after the colonization of Thasos from rogue, Parioi and Thasioi jointly appear on the opposite coast of Thassos, having their eye chiefly on the wealth of minerals of Pageos, colonize the entire coast this, who call Thasians Epirus or Perea and found, around 650 e.g.. neapoli, today's Kavala, while slowly - slowly, especially in the 4th century. complete the Thasos Trades, ie the fortified coastal settlements -apoikies, built on posts older settlements, much of Thracian origin. such trades, which developed into real cities – States and were on the beach from where it passes the current National Road Kavala - Thessaloniki, was Galipsos, Apollonia and Kavala, but the pieriki city Fagris, in place of the hill the village of Orphani and other anonymous settlements, one of which I think was the Karyani, very close to the ancient Fagri.
Gold and silver Paggeo conditions continue and the ages of classical Greece hauling, like magnets, Greeks and barbarians. The Persians of Darius and Xerxes, tyrants and adventurers like Aristagoras and Histiaios from Miletus of M. Asia, Athenians with Kimon and other generals, and the pure, founder of the famous colony, of Amphipolis, Philip the Macedonian and in the end the Romans Antony and Octavian (later August) They crowded around the mountain and want to put in their hands t 'fabulous riches.
Amphipolis, this glorious city of our region, the great history and reputation made the Romans to respect and to declare free city, leaving it to operate autonomously, the church of the municipality and its institutions, it is natural to directly affect the lives of ancient Karyanis, whose history has always been closely connected with its own.
A little west of Amphipolis, at a distance 4 kilometers of Struma, It was a colony of the inhabitants of another Greek island, Andros the Clay, which is excavated on the left of the old, highway Kavala - Thessaloniki, after Kerdyllia, by Canadian, archaeological School. Andros was in the Halkidiki region and three other colonies, the Sani, Acanthus and Stagira, motherland of Aristotle.
At the time, moreover, set up above the Greek colonies, very close to the three major Karyani Trades Thasos, Apollonia, (who was there about that later was Arvanitohori), Galipsos (the coastal location Aeidarokastro rural area Akropotamos) and particularly Fagris, excavated in Cannon Hill Orfanio, They were the immediate vicinity of Karyanis and, of course, They were along the common path in history.
The reasons which led entire peoples, city-states and thousands of adventurers n 'struggling to get a foot in our region was the richness of this region, with t 'agricultural products of the fertile plains of, Serres and Philippi, irrigated by the rivers Strymon and Aggitis, the famous vineyards, who produced the famous in antiquity vivlino wine, with t 'vast forests, provided the famous shipbuilding timber, that the value of the first finds the Persian general Megabazus, whose words to the Persian King rescued by Herodotus ((E), 23): Oh king, what did you do, which gave the right to’ a ikanotato and wise Greek, (means the tyrant of Miletus Istiaio), to build the Myrcinus, where there is plentiful shipbuilding timber, wood for oars and silver!..”, the rich fauna of the land, sea and river Struma, (in which among others fished eels, by the process of clouding of the water) and especially with the precious metals of the subsoil.
If in those mentioned, add though that a few kilometers north of the citadel of Karyanis passed in ancient times one of the main roads of the Balkans, ancient or under way, connecting the cities of Greece on the one with the Ionian Sea and the Adriatic and on the other the interior of Thrace and Byzantium, a street that has existed since the early antiquity already, who had used the Paionians, the Visaltians, the mythical king of the Thracians Hedoni Paggeo Rhesus, and numerous troops, as the Megabazus during his campaign against Sirriopaionon and Xerxes during his campaign against Greece cities, According to Herodotus, but also countless travelers, carrying goods and ideas, (4) We understand the history, geographical and main economic environment in which we must see integrated ancient Karyani and we start talking specifically about her, starting from the etymology of the name.
One version attributes the name to some (lacking) Caria city, which was built somewhere around here, but without the slightest historical or archaeological reference for its existence, another in jackdaws birds, while Prof.. Ath. Karathanassis, in his book "The Gulf of Orfanos and the region", It informs us that in some words of texts 19th century village appears as Karagiannis and tells us that the local tradition maintains that the name may be associated with a synonym landowner of the area. But what they ignore the above versions is that the name appears in Karyanis chrysobulls Byzantine emperors and documents of the monasteries of Mount Athos since year 1081 a.d. and indeed written in wye, just as today, which means that it is much older than these modern interpretations of, of which it is the landowner Karagiannis, apparently, try some Greek scholars, to explain a difficult to interpret Greek name, But ignoring the historical sources. So what I think; That the village's name came from the Greek six Karyon (walnut), who gave her name and Karyes Mount Athos, located opposite. So why all these incredible versions and not the origin of ellinikotatis Karyanis from root curry- and ancient Greek culmination of many ancient cities -one (e.g.. aiani); 1.
The proven and not just hypothetical appearance of Karyanis in Greek history starts very early.
To the north of the old village there are traces of ancient citadel low rampart, while to the east there are ancient ruins and Byzantine buildings.
Professor at the University of Nancy, France Paul Perdrizet, which already talked, already from the 1894 published a scientific article entitled trip to Macedonia First, (meaning the first of the four parts of Macedonia, which had divided the Roman administrative Macedonia), a chapter, inter alia, mentioned in ancient inscriptions he saw himself in the old Karyani. The scientist, after having said that Karyani was a Greek village, built in a mountainous area, through which the waters of Pieria Valley formed passage to the sea, then said that this village encircled ancient remains, coming, (according to him) an ancient city that was located closer to the sea and to the east and that others while identified with ancient Apollonia, but he identifies it with Galipsos, (and here meant the ancient Galipsos, already identified with the hill of Aeidarokastrou, towering above the coastal road). A Closer, course observation of the site shows that the teacher had no right to say that the ancient remains of Karyanis came from Galipsos, because we now know that in and around old Karyani were ancient residential facilities. But what is important, It is what he saw in the old Karyani Professor, when he passed through there before the year 1894:
In a house Christou, son Claus, near school, He saw a sign of the end 5th century or the beginning of 4th e.g.. century, written on white marble. The portion of which could be read wrote DIOS ERKEIO Patroos AND DIOS Ktesios, with Greek letters, the Ionic dialect. Ktesios Zeus was the god who protected and afxaine goods, products and the offspring of the house. Image placed ancient, according to Arpokrationa and Athenaeus, in their cellars, while an inscription from Caria of M. Asian classifying him among homemade gods, (enoikidioi gods), together with the goddess Tyche, doing chores to go well and Asclepius, which protects against diseases.
Erkeios Zeus was the god that protected the erkos, namely the corner, fire, the center of the house, where family, the distal length, offered worship to ancestors. The erkeios Zeus had its altar in the center of the courtyard of the palace of the mythological Greek king. When Troy fell, the altar of Zeus erkeiou Priam appealed for protection and above him the altar of the killed Neoptolemus who, because he made such an outrage, ought, according to the oracle of Delphi, to die on the altar of Apollo at Delphi itself, as it happened!
So, the erkeios Zeus was the breadwinner and household religion, while the ancients considered him and protector of the entire generation, not only as such family. We Know, on the other hand, that this name Zeus gave the Ionians, which means that Ionians were those who lived in Karyani late 5th and early 4th century BC.
The teacher then saw the village a number of tombstones, (funerary inscriptions) particularly the following:
In the church of Agios Athanasios, at the altar base, a headstone that diesoze someone's name Apollodorus and his father, THIRONOS.
Fitted quite high on the school wall, He saw a headstone from the Hellenistic era, in good, Greek writing. (The life, well, continues to Karyani and 3the and 2the century BC). The inscription is written on a votive column, depicting grooming woman. This is the ARISTOKLEIA, his daughter POLYDOROU.
In the house of Christos Papanastasi saved the upper part of a column with beautiful decorative leaves and rosettes, which survived only MEN The letters
In the same house there was another inscription fragment, decorated with rosettes, with the name of someone MENANDROU, while below it the name was another, slaked.
Always in the same house, a short column shape with curved, in front of which there was the inscription NIKOVOULI Philiscus IROISSA.
In the same, end, house was a square column, on top of which, into a dished block was a tree, the trunk of which embraced a snake, under the tree there was an altar. We know this pattern of funerary reliefs dedicated Thracians Paggeo (and not only) the cinder Hero horseman, a god whose temple was excavated a few years ago near Kipia of Eleftheroupolis, only to those t-reliefs depicted and the hero himself. In the column in which talking was an inscription that read IGISIPOLIS - POLEMARCHIDOU - ADYMOS prevailing - prevailed POLEMARCHIDOU.
On the wall, on the other hand, the cemetery which was around the St. Athanasius Church was built another, Latin this time inscription, demonstrating the continuity of habitation of the old Karyanis and during the Roman conquest. 1.
At "Jar", one kilometer east of the hill where the ruins of ancient Galipsos, there are findings of an ancient settlement from the early Iron Age. Part of the village destroyed by the opening of the coastal highway, and a settlement extended north of that road, where they found tombs of 6th e.g.. century. A bronze buckle found among the rubble of the region 1974, It must have come from the tomb of the early Iron Age, which was associated with this settlement. Also the 1974, during the opening of the highway, They were found four graves of the Archaic period, coming from a sanctuary of Demeter, which crossed this destructive pathway. Some blocks of limestone and marble, and pieces of broken Attic vases 6th century BC. associated with this sacred. (2 and 3)
In "Paleokastro" area discovered ancient tombs, headstone and Mycenaean shells. Especially the presence of Mycenaean pottery in an area so far from the Mycenaean centers of southern and central Greece, It shows the lively business relationship of the area to these centers 3.
In place Tower Karyanis discovered two tombs of the Late Roman era. The tower was built in the late Byzantine period and would talk to him and then, just like the other tower, Apollonia, few kilometers east. 3.
In Roman times the old Karyani, η οποία, as seen from the random archaeological findings, (especially if carried out some systematic research and excavation), It was certainly as a small village integrated, like all eastern Macedonia, the first of the four portions of Macedonia, in MACEDONIANS FIRST, as wrote the coins issued in Amphipolis, which became the capital of the Share. The economic development of the area was great and in this period, while still Thassians, even in Roman times, to keep under control the elementary east of Naples (Kavala) extending portion of Epirus or Perea, know it and that the Trades Thasos the Fagris (indicating the Strabo) and Apollonia (who said Strabo, Pliny and Mela Pomponios), They survived the Roman era. Besides, the letter-found Oueiniloueiou Pataikeiou, which refers to the obligation of Thasos maintain it owned its responsibility section of Egnatia Odos, shows that Thassians held, and indeed to the Roman period part of the old Perea, but without knowing the kind of domination they exerted thereon, While, anyway this Perea was now very compressed from the Roman colony of Philippi, which Thassians always had border disputes. (7)
Our conclusion is that the Roman conquest failed serious blow to the urban organization of the coastline of the Aegean Thrace and thus explains the presence, in the old Karyani itself and the surrounding area, residues of her life in that very period. As longer see the inscriptions and tombstones, The Hellenized Thracians and Greeks who lived in the region during the Hellenistic period, added a new national element, Roman, in however this area of interest this element can not be considered to have been organized in residential areas, rather than in rural facilities, (farmhouses), that such abundant excavated in recent years in the surrounding area. But what is characteristic and shows the great cultural superiority of the Greeks and Hellenized Thracian region, It is the fact that towards the end of the Roman era the Roman conquerors had now exellinisthei, a and inscriptions and their tombstones is again written in Greek language! (5)
In neighboring Galipsos attributed occasionally some findings from the old Karyani. Referring to the Roman period, We highlight the following reliefs published by the Superintendent of Antiquities Kavala George Bakalakis, together with G.E. Miller, in their article titled "Galipsos, Thasos commercially ", (6) Found as true to the old Karyani, except supposedly come from Galipsos, which does not accept, for the reasons already stated, considering that probably belonged to the ancient and then Roman Karyani same:
In the house of Eleftherios K.. Kardamylioti found a funerary relief with the familiar theme of funeral facilities, which dated to Roman times past. The terrain is split tape into two parts. In the main section there are four forms, male and female alternate. Women are too similar, but not men of relief, a and one of them is new, clean shaven, chiton and himation, while the other is elderly. In another part of the relief is the Deathly table with three legs, on which there are fruits, while around the table we have a young slave and a young slave girl.
In Karyani well in John's house Katriti, accordance with those archaeologists, found and part marble basin, which can be reduced in early Christian times and bring more of the inscription "MEMNISTHAI ASSIST PROSENEGKANTOS". (6)
During the Byzantine period Karyani is certainly a village inhabited by Greeks, nature reserves by the end of the Ottoman conquest, with a superior population element in Greek, as we will see below.
There Is, Firstly, a reference to that 1185, near Karyani Byzantine defeats the Normans' (2 and 20), while we know that the latter particularly plagued the region, as later (1196) made and the Bulgarian Tsar Asen, the raids. (16).
In later Byzantine period the empire was divided into large districts, issues, which, The last centuries of Byzantine rule is divided into smaller sections, the katepanikia, (the name of their lord, called "flat top"). The Karyani therefore belonged to Serres and Strymon Subject, established between 809-899 and the last Byzantine centuries (after the 1261) It belonged to a smaller subdivision, the katepanikion the Popolo or Lykoschismatos.
An important monument associated with Karyani this period of the late Byzantine period is the "Tower of Kariani" (and indeed Kariani with iota), described in article A. Dunn με τίτλο «Byzantine topography at southeastern Macedonia», published in Volume Memory Lazaridis. City and Country in ancient Macedonia and Thrace. (7). The writer, illustrious Byzantinologist, obviously refers to the Tower of Apollonia, But to say that the closest to him Byzantine facility is Kariani (with iota), who calls himself old Karyani. It is also important that the author refers to a Greek navy manual 16th century, where the Tower of Apollonia called Tower Kariani.
Apart from the above, that he did not know the author is that there's another one tower, south of the village Karyani, beneath the coastal highway, which traces exist today. This tower was investigated by the Antiquities Kavala year 1966, so declared by Byzantine archaeologist. Chaido Koukouli - Chrysanthaki. (12).
Professor GK. Papazoglou, on the other hand, in his book "Turkish Translated documents dependency" orphan "of Dionysiou monastery on Mount Athos (1535-1733), Kavala 1987, It considers that this second tower of the beach of Karyanis is the tower of the aforementioned dependency of St. John of the Holy Monastery of Dionysiou on Mount Athos. (13)
An important source of information for the settlements and the morphology of the Symbol conditions in the last four centuries of the Byzantine period are the documents of the Monasteries of Mount Athos, held large monastic estates in and around this mountain, with residents to have serfs character:
Two important documents pertaining to the year 1081 a.d. It is firstly a prominent, with which the monks of the monastery of Constantinople Kosmideiou engyountan the monks of the monastery of Mount Athos Amalfitanon possession of an estate in the area of Platanos imperial estate of Prinari (symbol) conditions, which they had previously sold, secondly, an imperial bull of Alexios 1th Komninos, who sanctioned this occupation.
This property therefore, that the monks of Monastery Istanbul Kosmideiou sold in the peninsula monks of the monastery of Mount Athos Amalfitanon, "Commence at the border of Platanos (does it mean the Platanotopos;) and wherein the column stands marble, exits upon east ...... apodidosi (ends) in the downfall epilegomenin Rachonin, allowed micron to noon left the rights of Treasiou right the laws of Volovisdis, (going for settlements in the free areas - Elaiohori), Perri the Laggada and akoumvizei wherein katenanti RAHONIOU, leaning toward noon states far from the meridian air ..... Perry the river (means the Marmara) in high mountains, Afterwards a turning on the west states far from the beach, and the west wind, ... Afterwards a rotated on Member noon this air far from the States Mesonisi, equal the monolith, left the fair Dovrovikeias (fern) the right not fair akoumvizei Ramni and in the Aigialos in monolithic rock, (means the rock in front of the Tower of Apollonia), Afterwards a turning on the west states far from the beach, and the west wind, Afterwards a rotated on Arctic states far from the Arctic air, Afterwards a raised to the neck and the Member rachin akoumvizei in the sepulcher in omega oak stands, descends equal and enters the Xeropotamou him descending from the Karyanis, Member at all the Xeropotamou s left the rights of Prinari right not the just Aeidarokastrou, passing near Karyanis and the foot of the mountain and akoumvizei top of a downfall where Esti and Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Afterwards a descending on the east and was combined of Xeropotamou interim collapsing from Vomplianis etc.. So you see the Karyani and Vompliani exist as settlements already in the year 1081 and bordering with a huge monastic estate, the description of which we recognize so many names, there until today! In the same text, moreover refers to two previous chrysobulls, emperors Isaac 1th Komninos and Nikiforos Botaneiates, under which was ratified again buying the monastic estate. Here we should also note the existence, a thousand years, near the old Karyani, Temple of Christ the Savior.
On the same property of Amalfitanon monks, They had tax relief and included farmers and their families, Connectable to convent a form imperfect community, later ratified by the emperor Andronicus 2ND, a golden bull of, of the year 1298, where this property is referred to as "the Metochion Amalfinou after the zefgilateiou this intertextual around Lykoschisma in the site so that the words of Aeidarokastrou ..." (8) Clearly more at the Monastery of Great Lavra longer belonged to large estate described, But together with a neighboring property, that of "Aeidarokastrou, Lykoschismatos the region ", in which the 1317 working 27 families, (14 Paros 13 free farmers), that in 1321 are 38 ή 39 families.
At the same time, (early and mid 14th century), Monastery of Iviron Mount Athos is the eastern side of THERMOPOTAMOU, the current Marmara, It owns a large estate, that bordered on the land of Dovrovikeias, ie downstream wingless and stretched from the rock beneath the Tower of Apollonia and east. (chrysobull John Emperor Kantakouzenos, year 1351).
In 1394 chrysobull Emperor Manouil Palaiologou confirming the ownership of a plot of Pantocrator Monastery on Mount Athos, Again the term Symbol, who was "in the village or Lykoschisma Vompliani" and extended "by St. John Chrysostom until THERMOPOTAMOU". (9).
In the centuries of Byzantine rule an interesting chapter in the history of the area was the installation, in the Struma region, first as raiders and robbers centuries later, after their Christianization, as mercenaries many Byzantine emperors, the so-called Slavic Strymoniton, ie Slavs installed permanently with their families, who mixed with the local population after centuries of seeing the nominal lists of villagers and monastic estates in the region, not the main Dovrovikeias, (which is obviously Slavic name and is the latest Fern) and spit (which is later Sarlis - Kokkinochori) many Slavic names of family members, whose other members bore Greek names.
Many years ago, on the other hand, have the barbarian invasions started, first Bulgarian, for centuries and later the Turks, due to which sometimes great monastic estates deserted. Particularly when the Turkish expansionism began, The area was deserted and robbed repeatedly, so the old, great prosperity to turn into immense devastation and poverty. So, e.g., When, in 1342, John Kantakouzenos allied with the Ottoman Sultan Orhan and his wife even gave to his daughter, the ruler of Aydin Oumour Mpeis came to help with fleet and fighters. Then, (1337 and 1340) the above predatory fleet raided in the Struma region and the first hand again sends, But the second plundered villages and the estates of the monasteries of Mount Athos. Surely this was fate then and Karyani, once and then destroyed, including the Iviritis dependency of spit (Kokkinochori), the church of Genesis of the Virgin that existed within the. (10).
In 1282-1321 He ascended the throne of Serbia Stephen Miliutin, who conquered the region of Serres and Chrysoupolis (Touzla), and the port Orfanos. since, then, Stephen Dushan ascended, in 1331 the same throne, conquered large parts of Macedonia and proclaimed himself king and emperor Serbia and Romania, But the state was ephemeral, since although Byzantine rulers, Great stratopedarches brothers Alexios and Ioannis great primikirios, They conquered all the coasts, from Kavala to the mouth of the Strymon, leaving Serbs blocked inside.
But already they had thickened and the raids of the Ottomans and threaten Macedonia, particularly since they, in 1361, They conquered Adrianople and made it the capital of their state, culminating in the period 1383-1387, so, having headed by Gazi Evrenos Bey and Lala Sahin, They conquered and our entire region, Serres, Kavala and Thessaloniki, ruined castles Kavala and Chrisoupolis (Touzla) and they began to install numerous Turkmens settlers from Asia Minor, main Giouroukos and Koniarides.
Mid 16th century the area was subject to the administrative region (Orta) Yew Dag and then the cathode was observed in Bulgarian workers area and farmers, who came to work in the Ottoman conquerors service. (21)
Since mid 16th century onwards, Traders came from Ragousa Dalmatian, Chios, Venice, even from Egypt, They arrived to the mouth of the Strymon, They lived in the area for up to two months, to sell and in buying goods, as we are informed by Frenchman Baron Pierre Belon du Mans
The long period of Ottoman rule was for the region particularly painful. The Islamization led much of the Greek people in religious first and then the national assimilation of the conquerors, with the exception of a few islets Abroad, that through the harshest conditions managed to keep the Greek character of their inhabitants. Such islands were the local villages Pangaiou province, the Nikisiani, the Mesoropi, the Fern, the Myrtofyto (Ntrezna), the Karyani, the Podochori etc..
The Karyani remained in this long and dark period of a Greek village, in the neighborhood whose major town and administrative and religious center of the region was the Prava, while the Orphan (current Orphani) It became an important road junction and port Orfanos or Tsagezi an important port of the region's products, (the famous tobacco and other agricultural products, firewood and constructional timber, missile manufactured at the factory Ottomans in Sheep by mid 19th century and took the iron from the Symbol term, hence the name of the village Sidirochori etc.) From this harbor Gate gets in kind and the tenth, tax ie slaves from across the region, Serres including. Also worth mention here and the dependency of St. John, the Dionysiou Monastery on Mount Athos maintained in the orphan region.
Let's say a few words about these three, adjacent to Karyani, signs of growth in the region during the Ottoman:
The Orphan was, as we said a major road junction, built on the ancient or down street, which still formed especially important route connecting Europe with the Ottoman capital. Mentioned by all browsers and lived Koniarides, (descendants of Turkish conquerors, possible from Ikonio of M. Asia) and Giouroukos.
The 1591 Orfanos transferred from the Venetian Gabrielle Cavazza, going to Istanbul. He saw the orphans was a township, but it was already established kadi, and he had two Caravan - seraglios, and salt marshes at beach. (21)
In late 16th century was an important road and commercial center, with 400 Christian houses, informs us a man of letters, Gabriel Fine of Corinth, that around 1570-1580 was Patriarchal Exarch Orfanos. (21)
At the beginning of 17th century Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi describes the Orkan or orphans as a pop-up mall, with vines, storey houses, the port and the beautiful tower on the beach, which had already begun to crumble, (obviously here meant the beach tower Karyanis, because the Tower of Apollonia had, of course, relationship with the port Orfanos;) It was established voevod, Kechagia (curator of the army), Head Janissaries, Namibia (ierodiki) and had Muslim notables. (11, 21)
In 1714 ο Paul Lucas, in his Voyage dans la Grece ..., describes Orphani like a village with vineyards and two-storey houses, a port that had some traffic, because ships with goods could even then n 'climb Strymonas to some extent. (11)
In 1791 French consul in Thessaloniki Cousinery founded the orphan agency consulate of, while describing a large woodland, starting from the Rentina and reached up to the Gulf of Orfanos, filled with oaks, trees etc., It refers receiver and for cotton.
The orphan and does not owed surroundings wellbeing only in that they were near the main road leading from Thessaloniki to Istanbul. The owed and that the port Orfanos or Tsagezi, as mentioned in the sources, It was an important port, which for centuries played an important role in the export of the region's products and the importation of goods from other places.
Let's say, also, short and the dependency of St. John, the Dionysiou Monastery on Mount Athos maintained in the orphan region.
As a monastery of Dionysiou know today that existed before 1500, after firman of Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512) given in Istanbul, the 1495, the abbot of the Monastery of Dionysiou Anthimos, just mention this dependency, which was "Hasikou" someone Iskenderun Pasha, (apparently renegade Greek perhaps from Trabzon, after Iskenderun is the Greek name Alexander). (13)
Tradition speaks of dependency of the Monastery of Dionysiou that existed in the region even earlier Orfanio, come from donations of the last emperor of Trapezountas Dafid, to which, as we know, Muhammad the conqueror, after the fall of Trebizond, offered an area in the Struma and Pangaiou area, which could bring the year 300.000 White, in accordance with the W. Miller.
But it is certain that the dependency belonged to the Monastery Dionisiou on Mount Athos since at least 1530 and held, as after the liberation and installation in the area of refugees from Asia Minor, about 4.500 – 5.000 acres of land.
From manuscript chronicle 1638 We have the information that the dependency of orphans and the dry dock (arsanas) in the Karyanis beach built by Serres brothers Manuel and Thomas.
In 1641 the dependency in financial difficulties, because of which he gave part of the property as a "hock" (pledge) in a Turkish area, named Chatzi Moustafa aga, which obviously had money,
but then it seems that it overcame his problems, after the 1733 his estates, the vegetable garden and the tower are described as belonging to it, a firman of Sultan Mahmud to Bostantzimpasi Omer Aga and to ierokriti Kavala. (14)
Until the 1821 the shareholders had all its original area, But since then until the 1878 longer held 1/3 this. (14)
The 1878, during the revolution in Halkidiki, the dependency on the estates arbitrarily seized by Turkish beys, who previously massacred all there representatives of the Monastery Dionisiou. (14)
During the Russo-Turkish war the Turks neighbors beys, epofelithentes the anomaly, They expelled the monks and captured the entire dependency, when they sold a significant part of the land. (14)
But there is also the view of elder abbot of the Monastery of Dionysiou, Gabriel, that after the defeats and humiliations suffered by the Turks in the region of Nikotsara, after leaving raided against dependency and while the elder abbot, Daniel, They hung in the great tree of Orfanio, movable property of ripped across, not the estates donated to two families beys from Moustheni, who were killed in battles with Nikotsara. (14)
The 1912-1913 Monastery captured again the land of dependency, apparently with the blessing of the Greek government and held until 1930, when the then government wanted his property to include it in for disposal to landless refugees exchangeable land so began lengthy legal fights of the monastery with the Greek State, for n 'turns compensated for Moni 6.000 acres, taking as compensation 6.280.000 GRD. (14)
In the Bulgarian occupation of East Macedonia in 1915-1917, German and Bulgarian occupiers completely destroyed the dependency, which began to rebuilt again in May 1920, informs us Archimandrite Gabriel Dionysiatis in his "definition of Nikotsara battles in 1806". (15)
Referring then to the ecclesiastical state of Karyanis during the Ottoman, We should note the following loose items:
The area of the Mesoropi and beyond, to the orphan and the Karyani, since early 13th century we have information, He belonged to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Bishop of Philippi and not one bishop Eleftheroupolis, under which the relevant 1864. This follows a) the letter of Pope Innocent III to the Latin Archbishop William Philippi, describing the villages under the jurisdiction of, which included, including the Orphan and Karyani and b) signet of the year 1618 patriarch Timothy, who united again with the Metropolis of Philippi patriarchal villages, "The te Struma river, the Amfipolin, namely Marmaris, the Chrysoupolin, namely Orfanion, the Karianin, the Bomplianin, in Neochorion, the Podogorianin and Vosoromou. Before the 1618 these villages belonged to the Patriarchate's jurisdiction, forming the "patriarchal exarchate Orfanio", certainly before the year 1577, and after their union with the Diocese in Philippi 1618 They returned to exarchy previously belonged, likely after 1626.
After the 1717 the exarchate Orfanio merges with exarchy Kavala and 1721 attributed to the last Bishop of Xanthi and Peritheorion, under the spiritual jurisdiction of which remained, (like the villages and, hence the Karyani) until the 1924. (This assured and Giorgos Dalaras. Filippides, when he visited the ecclesiastical regions of the area and 1877 published a description of the provinces entitled "Periegesis of Macedonia Drama provinces, Zihni and Eleftheroupolis ". The 1905 indeed G.. Hadjikyriakos surprise when it finds strange ecclesiastical division of the region and notes in his "Thoughts and impressions of the tour project throughout Macedonius (1905-1906)» : "The Mesoropi after previous, Kariani, Bomplianis and Podogorianis, falling, Paradoxically most church dividing manner, in ecclesial eparchy Xanthi, itis thus penetrates and ensfinoutai between towns of Eleftheroupolis province, encroaching, so to speak, rights that).
An ecclesial nature of the report we Karyanis, end, a document sent 28 residents Mesoropis, 13 the Bomplianis, 30 and the Podogorianis 34 Karyanis to the Ecumenical Patriarch, with which, because they presented problems in its relations Xanthi Metropolitan Dionysios Bisti (1861-1867) and he was forced to stay in Kavala, stated that "we the inhabitants of exarchian Kavala and the surrounding villages we will maintain our high priest or anyone on whom else outside of Xanthi. (17)
Since the signatory I am not a historian, but simple filistor, I quote only a few more, scattered, Historical data, related Karyani, The following:
In the list of Macedonian Drama and Kavala, published in "prestigious volume on-the Jubilee of respecting. Metropolitan F.N.TH. Chrysostom ", at Kavala, the 1960, It stipulates that Karyani existed during the Macedonian struggle committee, with known members of their Eleftheriadis and Stergios Karagiorgi.
In the body of Kapetan Tsara, who acted as makedonomachos in Paggeo area from 1905, He belonged as member of the Committee of Karyanis person named Pagonis body. (19)
When Giorgos Dalaras. Filippides visited the provinces in Macedonia Drama, Zihni and Eleftheroupolis, described as follows the Karyani: "The Karagiannis. The coma 'This, near which the Normans destroyed under Byzantine interim 1185 a.d., mesimvrinos relevant legal and adjacent to the foot of the wooded put Pangaiou, inhabited by 140 about Muslim families and 160 Christian, retains good grade school, after two classes Greek courses » (20)
In state Ministry of Foreign Affairs, reported the general consulate Serres, reported that over the years 1887-1889 The primary school had Karyani, subsidized by the Ministry 10 francs monthly, while the 1887 allegedly operated and girls. The same elementary school of the Karyanis 1896 had 1 teacher, 1 teacher, 35 Students also take grant 1334 francs per year, under the same condition mentioned above. (21)
The year 1886 Major Greek engineer, Nicholas I.. Shinas, toured our area and included his impressions in his article entitled "Macedonia odoiporikai notes, Epirus, new delimitation line and Thessaly ', published in the Bulletin B magazine Macedonia (Macedonian). So says this soldier that "to epitirisin Beach, from the port of Tsiagiazi by Russian dependency of St. Andrew were outposts in Tsagiazi, ie the mouth of the Strymon, the Orphan etc. "and elsewhere indicate that in the year of the tour was Karyani 980 Greek residents only 160 Ottomans, totaling 1.140 residents.
The 1894 published in Leipzig, Germany a book titled "The in Pangeo country of Lakkovikion, topography, mores, customs and language ", by Asterios D.. Gousios, who was then director of urban school Lakkovikion. While the book does not refer to Karyani, Orphani etc., because it was not adjacent to the villages Lakkovikia, it is interesting that the music lovers subscriber list of books included from the following Karyani: Reverend Chrysanthos Archimandritis, Socrates Stergioglou, Pagonis Hadjikyriakou, Chr. Economides, Silver P. Apostle, Chr. Marion and George Ghica.
I mentioned before the name of George Hadjikyriakou, Greek who traveled the enslaved, even then, in Macedonia 1905-1906. He then visited Karyani and described as follows: "Parakampton despite the coast Galipsos and leaving downwardly and left the hormone Iionos archomai ascends again on Pieris conditions on the opposite slope of this Cayman after anode hour enters the komin Karianin, in height and in apopto keimenin. And the hamlet 'This is quite a negligible Kariani a Greek Orthodox community, synoikoumenon subject of numerous families Ottoman. And in this church with the adjacent school for boys, old and spacious building, diaplassousin the Greek Orthodox this soul. Through diligent efforts must edit a greater than the schools, repair the Boys' School and Girls Builds, ordination almost entirely lacks.
They wonder what says Hadjikyriakos, that Karyani had girls in 1905-1906, unless he transferred from Karyani prior year 1902, since Karyani had only Greek school (boys school) since the second half of 19th century, in 1902 but it had now not only municipal or urban school (boys school) with 1 teacher and 33 schoolchildren, but, and now a girls', with 1 teacher and 18 schoolgirls, while at the same time, File of the year Foreign Ministry 1888 mentions the existence of a girls since year 1887 in Karyani! (18)
Andreas Arvanitis, doctor, Visit the site, issued the 1909 in Athens in the project "Macedonia eikografimeni", which is not described although the Karyani, limited to describe the orphan, but he says "despite the century without this alykai paragousin abundant salt".
The Trifon Evaggelidis, professor of Volo Gymnasium, sights will the area, issued, the 1913 Athens a book entitled "NEW GREECE, namely historical, geographical, topographical and archaeological description of the new Greek Epirus countries, Thessaly, Macedonia, islands and clear and precise guide for travelers and tourists ", which describes that "... hence the traveler or progresses to the mouth of the Strymon, by way of the through passage Orfanos (inhab. 500, out of which 100 Turks) passing and leaving to the northwest. the hormone Iionos, ascends again on the Pieri terms on the opposite slope of this ... And in the first case while visiting the ruins of ancient Iionos ..... in particular the second case riser mount after anode hours, enters the komin Karianin, This apopto keimenin (inhab. 900 Certain after Turkish). Ex Kariani TRAVELOGUES on grafikotatis palisade reaches the traveler after hour of the komin Bomplianin etc..
Michael Chouliarakis, in his' Geographical work, administrative and population development set Greece, 1821-1971», Volume II, version National Center for Social Research, Athens,1975», says the year 1913 the Kariani, subject to vice governship Prava, had 635 residents.
The Executive Office of the Greek army, The statistical tables of population and Serres prefectures nationality, Drama and Kavala issued year 1919 in Athens, said the Karyani was before the Balkan wars 470 Greek residents, where in August 1915 They were added 157 refugees, Greeks also. So total was 627 residents, from which 324 were men and 323 women.
Although my work is the story of Ms. Karyanis the region, until the liberation of the region from the Ottoman yoke, I can not avoid the temptation to quote some elements of the behavior of our friends and allies anymore Bulgarian, why folks their history, however painful it may be, should not forget the, not hide it and while the modify instance temporary interests, if they want to live free.
Since August 1916 by September 1918 Bulgarians, as allies of the Germans, They entered and occupied Eastern Macedonia. Our area then occupied by 10the Bulgarian division of the white sea, as called by the Bulgarians in Aegean. Since October 1916 by June 1917 in Bulgaria and added 58the Turkish division.
In the short period of their stay, our people have suffered tremendously by Bulgarian and Turkish fans, who benefited from the anomalous situation, in order to make up the Greeks and the old lime hatreds. What were they; Our embossed recounts the official report sent to the then Greek Minister of Interior Mr.. Titus Gialouris, prefect of Greece in the region, after the 1th World War II, the defeat of the Germans and their allies and the departure of the Bulgarians, from which reference, (which I found written in French and translated), read little snippets, concerning the fate of Karyanis:
From Paggeo area only exiled in Bulgaria 2.250 people, of whom came back only 900.
The population Paggeo, from 14.000 fell on Orthodox 7.000 – 8.000, because executions, of exile and forced migration.
The orphan, the occupiers demolished 40 homes and left homeless 250 people.
In Karafni demolished 120 homes and left homeless 595.
The inhabitants disappeared. Many died of hunger and hardships, others have not returned from exile and the survivors were scattered.
In the report there are the oral testimonies of some who suffered badly, arrested, exoristhentes or detainees by Bulgarians, but the juxtaposition of the terrible complaints is beyond the aims of this speech.
An Allied Commission, on the other hand, established after 1918 to monitor the human rights violations committed in East Macedonia from the Bulgarian army, in reports and investigations carried out and which were issued in France but also in London 1919, describes the most gloomy things Karyani suffered by Bulgarian occupiers. The latter entered the village, that had 646 residents, at 6 Aug 1916 and left early 1919, leaving it only with 146 residents, and one had died 35 residents, 263 They were transferred as hostages in Bulgaria, of whom only returned 62 and the rest ekpatristhikan. In reference to the Allied Commission also indicated that destroyed 146 houses, (against 120 who had recorded the Gialouris) and stolen by the Bulgarians 270 cattle, 140 horses and mules, 100 donkeys, 2.000 sheep and 30.000 kids. Deposits at Allied Commission then gave Karyaniotes George Angelou, Dimitrios V.. Karamoutas, (hostage in Dobrudja with two sons), Panagiotis Rokka, Agathon Th. Vakalopoulos, Andreas Papadopoulos, George A Papadopoulos, Iakovos Papadopoulos and others, and then as the teacher of the village, Smaragda Eugenides, as described in the darkest colors the complete looting of the village by the Bulgarian soldiers, forced emigration, the exiles, their residents beatings and hostage of. (22)
But after a few decades our friends and allies Bulgarians came back to our place. It was the period of the Third Bulgarian occupation of Eastern Macedonia, 1941-1943. The Bulgarian occupiers, again following the Germans, They submitted a new, huge ordeal Eastern Macedonia. From the citizens who suffered the consequences are not excluded nor priests. In his book entitled "witnesses clergy Macedonia - Thrace, 1941-195"Athanasius Papaefgeniou describes what was the Priest of Karyanis Hristodoulos Dimanidis, characteristic and indicative of those who suffered and all other citizens of Karyanis: Three days after the arrival of the Bulgarians arrested soldiers, They stripped him and while the officer the beating, soldiers stomped hands and beaten all over the body. This was repeated four times and in wretched condition he was thrown on the road, where she picked him and his daughter. He stayed in bed for two months, but 15 days after his recovery he was arrested again and led him Ofrynio. The wounds from the beating were still. In the Orfrynio closed in a stable and recited category, that supposedly told the Greek residents Karyanis not surrender their weapons, but to hide, to use them against the Bulgarians. Then, They ordered him to leave the free Greece. Indeed, the priest departed, But the Struma Bulgarians took away his money and his animals. He Strymonas and settled in the old Kerdyllia, But where he had the misfortune, a bit later, losing two sons, when the Germans burned the village and killed the male inhabitants!
Like a broken glass, like a puzzle, as we say today, The story takes patience and love, in order to collect small pieces which form and create a set, life and culture of a people. I hope that with this small and completely amateur effort, I contributed too much as I could to set up the puzzle of the history of this ancient village Paggeo and surrounding area, leaving from the outside certainly in the 20th century, whose story still being written nowadays!
- «Bulletin de correspondence hellenique», year 1894. Article by Professor of the University of Nancy, France Paul Perdrizet entitled «Voyage dans la Macedoine premiere».
- environmental education group 2000-2001 Lyceum Podochori, "Traditional settlements of our region".
- archaeological sheet time, volume 37 (1982) - replica IH Ephorate prehistoric and classical antiques).
- Dim. Samsaris, "The Eastern Macedonia road from the Archaic period to the Roman conquest", Macedonian 14 (1974), SLE. 123 subs.
- The consequences of the Roman conquest and political Greek colonies on the coast of Aegean Thrace, (Announcement from 2the International Symposium Thracia Pontica II, held in Sozopol in Bulgaria 1982.
- George Bakalaki – G.E. Miller, "Galipsos, Thasos commercially ".
- memory Lazaridis. City and Country in ancient Macedonia and Thrace. Article ChaidosKoukouli - Chrysanthaki called "metals of Thassian Perea".
- Archives of Athos – Acts of Lavra, volume 1ND – version 1970 in Paris).
- Archives of Athos – Acts Παντοcrator, volume 2ND – version 1964 in Paris).
- Katepanikia of Macedonia, Article by George I. professor. Theoharidis year in Macedonian 1954.
- Apostolos Vakalopoulos, History of Macedonia, 1354-1833, SLE. 216.
- Chaidos Koukouli - Chrysanthaki, antiquities and monuments of Eastern Macedonia, Archaeological Bulletin 30 (1975) (Part B 2, annals), SLE. 286.
- G. K. Papazoglou, "Turkish Translated documents dependency" orphan "of Dionysiou monastery on Mount Athos (1535-1733),
- G. K. Papazoglou, two documents relating to the sale of "Roufaniou" in Hajji Moustafaga, Macedonian, volume 27ND, 1989-1990, SLE. 403 subs.
- Archimandrite,. Gabriel Diionysiati, Communication "place setting of the battles Nikotsara 1806, in the Proceedings of the First Symposium local "The riding and the region", page 97.
- Athanasios E.. Karathanasi, Bay Orfanos and its area, version of 1998.
- Emilios Rep. Mavroudis, history of Eleftheroupolis Metropolis.
- Table General of the European Turkey Greek schools, (in Constantinople 1902).
- Communication Angela Kiourtsi - Michalopoulou in the Proceedings of the Second local symposium "The KAVALA AND THE REGION", (26-29/9/1986),. Volume A', SLE. 232.
- Giorgos Dalaras. Filippides, "Periegesis of Macedonia Drama provinces, Zihni and Eleftheroupolis ", in Macedonian, First Volume (1877), SLE. 286.
- Athanasios E.. Karathanasi, Bay Orfanos and its area.
- Raports and Allied Commission investigations on violations of international law comisses in Eastern Macedonia by Bulgarians Armies, (Nancy-Paris – Strasburg 1919).
THODOROS Demosth. LYMPERAKIS
Ioanni Fousteri 2