The strange death of Alexander the Great
One of the greatest historical riddles, worse even than the actual sphinx of Egypt, It is who killed Alexander the Great.
Some lightly want to charge the death of Alexander his companions. To those who say the slightest dereliction of duty during battle, where noted Alexander always claimed a leading role, countless times could result in the death of indomitable commander from Macedonia.
once even, when his general Parmenion, He wrote to watch his friend and personal physician Philip, as a potential traitor and poisoner of, he first read the letter with a hand delivered to the doctor's letter Philip accused him of treason and with the other took from the hands of medicine and drank it in front of everyone, without physically harmed.
People who followed Alexander, They were fully aware, the unprecedented historical epic that lived near him and knew that their names will be written forever in the brighter scene of history. But in desperate search of a possible conspiracy against Alexander's life, many historians resulted in some possible versions.
THE Plutarch It refers to various possible scenarios guilt, with basic, This discord instigated Alexander's mother Olympias with Europe commander Gen. Antipater, and his son Cassander. In conspiracies involving poisoning, both sommeliers Alexander the Midio and Iolla (son of Antipater), and his teacher, excellent people and Aristotle University. Certainly some scenarios Alexander's murder from the side of the Greeks, not without indications, but the way of Alexander's killing, It is that we strongly points to a Chaldean-Persian way intrigue, which unjustifiably overlooked by historians.Of course not aspire here, solve the puzzle, who killed Alexander the Great. But I think in the context of our study, underline the exceptional possibility of mixing the Chaldean priesthood, the murder of Alexander and the possible presence of manganefti deception, the most important crossroads of history. Alexander after the stunning victory over Darius after Granicus in first at Issus and then Gaugamela, He arrived in Babylon in 331 e.g.. where they surrendered the town without a fight. Seven years after the end of the campaign in the depths of Asia and India, the 324 Conqueror returned to Babylon 'whole' in Asia, with the stated intention, make Babylon the capital of his empire.
|Ch. The brown, The entry of M. Alexander in Babylon. 1664. Louvre.|
Here's the other side of events, that never quite lit: "By the end of the war (the highlanders Kossaious) Alexander now marched slowly towards Babylon. While abstained three hundred steps from Babylon, the so-called Chaldeans, astrologers with high reputation, who used to foretell the future, with their leader someone Velefanti, sued Alexander, that foresaw the imminent death in Babylon. They commanded not to warn the king of the danger that threatened him and They advised him in any way not to enter the city. They said that it can escape the risk (death) restore it if his grave Vilos, demolished by the Persians, renounces his entry into Babylon and accept overtake side of town. When Alexander learned of the prophecy of the Chaldeans kateplagi and pondering the subtlety and the reputation of these people troubled. Then he sent while in town many of his friends, but that changing road bypassed Babylon and camped spaced hundred steps therefrom. This caused general consternation and immediately visited many other Greeks and among philosophers and Anaxarchos. When they learned the cause of the thing, exhausted all their persuasive power of arguments from philosophy and metepeisan so much that despised each divination and more that the famous Chaldean. So the king as if he were mentally wounded and healed by reason of philosophers, finally entered with power in Babylon"Diodorus. Σικελιώτης 17. 112.
Theater history, the priests of Babylon in disguised self-appointed saviors, brought gifts to Alexander an opportunity of escape, from extinction ... that they had devised!Salvation was ... but only if and when the grand Greek, He agreed to resign from the course! The most cunning "fox" of history, the Chaldean priesthood, startled the most robust lion of world history, Alexander the Great! The marshal with the instinct of invincible leader, He sensed the danger and paused upset. The "Omniscient" though "Sages" escorts, with their leader someone foolish Anaxarhos, They hastened to reassure him ... and they succeeded! The safety of Alexander, It was in the hands of people who had no knowledge of chaldaiikis cunning. When philosophers imagination, essentially naive reassuring, They failed or hypothetical to recognize the words of the Chaldeans, an indirect threat against the life of Alexander!
The guards are unworthy of life the great King, They knew nothing about the exploits of the Chaldeans, completely unaware of the invisible arsenal and improbable materials poison-sorcery. There knew the innumerable masks of deceit smiling, of unsolicited savior, theatrical servility, the hypocritical friendship and sexual seduction foolproof recipes for the sake of penetration in the environment of the default target victim.
In fact they had no idea about the treacherous, effective weapons of the East. It was therefore natural, can not neither the size nor the type of rivalry assume. Unable to conceive even vaguely indirect threat of the Chaldeans against Alexander's life, drowned within their own philosophical chatter, they saw a historic opportunity to reciprocate the threats of the Magi. Using the same theological language, could threaten the Magi saying for example that some manners, customs or prophecies of Macedonians demanded the death of all those, to communicate such forecasts threatening to life the great king.Where indeed, that after the prophecies against, indeed anything threaten the life of Alexander, based on what their customs, the first to be killed, They will be those who brought the threatening prophecy to King.
Such workmanlike reverse threat, indeed couched in their own language of theological allusions, would put the coals again expected back in their own hands and would force them to rethink thoroughly before attempting to practice in any way threatening their"Prophecies". Such a clear warning will probably forced magicians to consider all possible ways to protect the life of Alexander because their survival would be inextricably tied to his own.
Unfortunately, the inability this time, left over from the side of the Greeks. The Greeks "Sages", surrounded Alexander, in this case they showed very poor. With vague rants and iroologies, downplayed the incident, speaking in a derogatory "Chaldaiikis of divination art"... without even know it!
The Greek wisdom, They were not able to assume that for wizards, the prognosis of death was clear statement murderous intent. The reasoning was and remains simple: no magician would not want to fail predictions, consequently all the prophets would do everything possible to verify, so the authentication mechanism of the prophecies are the prophets themselves. Though, completely ignoring the rival Greek wisdom failed to oppose the slightest antipanourgia. On The Contrary, dispelled fears of Alexander, the completely disarmed by caution and led him unprotected in Babylon, among renowned, but aging, powerless and harmless as they thought magicians. Proof of utter indifference toward warnings of the Magi and the serious lack of rigorous stewardship of Alexander was the following indicative fact: "One of the locals (slaves) which was tied solved without being noticed from the guards crossed the courtyard and the doors of the palace and went inside without anyone prevent him. Approached the royal throne, wore the royal uniform and diadem, sat on the throne (Alexander) and stayed there quietens. When the learned Alexander was surprised by the paradox ... sacrificed to the gods abominable, but he was all agony and brought to mind the prophecy of the Chaldeans and philosophers who persuaded him to come to Babylon condemned not the art of the Chaldeans and sagacity marveled and cursed those with witticisms on Destiny spoke"Diodorus. Σικελιώτης 17.116.1-4.
The curses but, rather than defuse concerns helped Alexander. It seems that the general organization and security guard Alexander had disrupted. The image of neglect and poor stewardship of his bodyguards, completes a three-day adventure of Alexander the labyrinthine swamps of Babylon. "Alexander's boat break away from the others and for three days and three nights was lost and wandering the canals, so afraid that it will not be saved. All these seers told as bad forebodings ". Διόδ. Σικελιώτης 17.116.5-6
The Alexander himself so there seems to have been hapless these developments, since with extremely fast and with numerous mixed marriages and privileges, trying to bridge the gap between the two worlds.Upon his return to Babylon Alexander, He stopped at Susa and celebrated weddings of the Stateira daughter of Darius. married 90 officers and 10.000 soldiers with jalousie. His friend Hephaestion, and he took a daughter of Darius. Five days and five nights lasted the grand celebrations of these mixed marriages.
Susa Alexander: "trismyrious (30.000) people chose, Greek letters and taught them the Macedonian martial art trained the, many do not and caretakers (officers!) made " Typical is also the detail that shows Alexander still holds and the slaves of Darius in his service: "And the eunuch said, weeping. Now I am yours servant, whereas previously I was of Darius' Diodorus. Σικελιώτης 17.66.4. The Macedonian leader then, simply was not able to perceive the world of oriental magic. On the conjugal bed, to direct service staff and military surroundings, It was longer girded by Hellenized Persians, whose payments, intents and secret vows revenge, and one could never be discovered.
Nobody can explain, how Alexander was typically the most terrifying enemy of Persians, the conqueror and destroyer of the Persian Empire, even one who rightfully, grabbed 50.000 talents of gold from Susa and 120.000 talents other treasures from Persepolis ... how it was possible to believe that he could make katasyntrimmenous by the hand of the Persians, harmless friends and servants;
It is known that in a moment of revenge for the incessant unnecessary invasions of the Persians against the Greeks, Alexander with the tacit consent, allowed:"The Athenian; another Thaida and many other women, to set fire to Persepolis, chiliostyli the Persian capital, which Alexander described as the most dangerous city in Asia, but also the richest city in the world ". (Διοδ. Σικελιώτης 17.72)
It would be ever possible, some, even a small number of the defeated Persians, not harboring hatred lime hidden and secret vows revenge, against the man who became the reason to lose their cherished, their homes, their fortune, privileges and opulence of their lives; Yet these efforts are excessive, almost violent and literal compound Persian and Macedon, They continued unabated from the side of Alexander, causing justified frustration among veterans Macedon troop. Alexander "settled" immediately issue demobilization 11.500 veterans, who sent them back to Greece with many privileges! The conflict was defused by a gigantic compromise symposium 9.000 people!
Everything indicates that the initial reservations, They had given their position on the pipe dream of union and fraternity between the two peoples. Nobody no longer could restrain Alexander than to open wide the doors of opportunity, those who only yesterday had every reason to want him dead. in Ecbatana, just before his entry into Babylon, Hephaestion showed persistent fever. Escaping from custody the doctor, drank a large cup (watered-down) wine and later dies. Alexander carried him and mourned the loss of the tragedy as a hero.Typical is the claim of, Chaldeans to extinguish the lime the sacred fire, in honor of the deceased.
|"Alexander's entry into Babylon" (1704)|
In the spring of 323 seven years after its first entry into Babylon, Alexander returned to it loaded Chaldean-Persian troops servants and brides, determined to make the erstwhile glorious city of Nebuchadnezzar capital. With celebrations and performances welcome 3.000 artists and ambassadors from Greece and other parts of his empire. Babylon was indeed the theoretical center of the vast empire. The intentions of these start now steadily implemented. In place of the famous tower of Babylon, It was no longer just a mountain of clay and adobes that should be set aside, in order to lay the new foundations of. Alexander begins the reconstruction of Babylon, ordering the removal of soil. According to Strabo: "The ousting of rubble dealt 10.000 people for two months ". Strav.18.104.22.168. It was clear, that Alexander will resurrect fundamentally Babylon! But the reconstruction of the tower, It never took place due to the early death of Alexander, after persistent fever twelve days.
The death conditions are described as follows: "The newspapers are not written on the disease ... the baths drowse (kathifde) with fever, after he was bathed, stou Midiou went risking (the development of health) and day-care. Late xanaloustike ... with strong fever exceedingly thirsty and drank wine, ate ..., and at night the fever worsened " (Plutarch, "Alexander",75.6-76.3). It is noted here that Alexander had already fever, πριν βρεθεί στο σπίτι των οινοχόων του, Midiou and Iolla.
The Diodoros O Sikeliotiswrites that immediately after the three-day hassle of the swamps"Invited by the sommelier of Midio. In honor of Hercules drank a lot of wine death (display large thirst, as in the case of Hephaistion;). Suddenly sighed a loud shout from a pain that pierced him and Supported by friends moved into his room. Everyone rushed to offer help, but passion worse. Doctors were unable to offer assistance. The pain got worse, and losing all hope to be saved, He pulled out the ring and asked to whom to deliver replied: "Tῷ kratistῳ". So Alexander died, he reigned twelve years and seven months and older feats done by all the kings, not only of those who lived before him other and from downstream to our days. Because some historians disagree on (the cause) of Alexander's death and claim that by deadly drug that occurred, judging it necessary not to forget them in this respect " (Διόδ. Σικελιώτης, 17.117). Babylon while still pleased with their sacrifices God for rescue,
The Chaldean priests apodedeichthikan absolutely true. Able to anticipate and obviously to impose the death of Alexander. The Greeks took a long time to think about the possibility of poisoning the king: "Most of them verbatim in the newspapers (Alexander) They were written. pharmacies (poisoning) no suspicion had immediately ' (Plutarch, "Alexander", 77.1-2).
Arrian writes that only Alexander had some suspicions in the right direction, but where one, or even later, not given any follow'There was something suspicious in it from the Chaldeans, who not by divination but rather for their own benefit prevented the entrance of Alexander (in Babylon)... Alexander had in mind the rebuilding (temples and generally Babylon), But when he walked (the campaign of India), these (the priests) malthakos (with indifference) anthipsanto (avoided) project ... and because of the Chaldean god enemonto, suspects were Alexander, they did not want to eiselthῃ in Babylon, to avoid depriving nor to little (logῳ repairs) money to benefit " (Arrian, "Alexander ascent", 7.17.1-4).
|Giuseppe Cades, THE M. Alexander refuses to take water. 1792. Hermitage Museum. Petrograd.|
The Diodorus Siculus (90-20 e.g.) he wrote about 300 years after the death of Alexander. The Plutarch(46-127 A.D.) one hundred years after him and finally Arrian (95-175 A.D.) wrote 450 some years after the events. All three previously consulted history texts, even the "newspapers" Alexander, and yet, the unmistakable mix version of the Chaldeans in the death of Alexander did not mention a word. Why does; What prevented these people to see, that at Chaldeans necessarily corresponding equal potential mixing portion in death of Alexander, to leave us their valuable opinion, which could not be circumventing future historians; So until now writing ypopsiasmoi (very few exceptions), without being able to rely on a historical evocation against the Chaldeans, arriving only until their selfish reasons of false prophecy of the Chaldeans, others never go terminate their possible involvement in the death of Alexander.
Be a typical example: «The priests of Babylon tried to prevent Alexander to get into town, showcasing every dark prophecy, (because) The reconstruction of the church Esagila and Etemenaki tower was not done and the money planned (from Alexander) for this purpose (before fleeing to India campaign), They not provided by the priests of the gods but their own pocket. The priests were not able to persuade Alexander, and he entered the city. And then it happened what had frightened the priests, The dominant Alexander ordered the commencement of works and delivery of the tenth of the church property in Royal tameio.Gematos energy Alexander begins preparations for new large enterprises. So planning the circumnavigation of Arabia and to this end creates harbor near Babylon and builds a huge fleet of a thousand ships. The Work is progressing rapidly, and spring 323 e.g.. exercises organized with triremes. Alexander was too optimistic, But the oracles, and horoscopes of astrologers foretell calamity " (Petra Eisele, "Babylon", SLE. 344).
Although Alexander suspected financial motives behind the attempt of removal from Babylon, though it is certain that there was still a reason he could not assume the, and he was the most important: Babylon was cursed:"And Babylon, The glory and pride of the Chaldeans, as Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by God will be. They will never live longer, nor will anyone camped there forever ... only beasts of the desert, sirens,demons and onokentafroi (;!) They will live there, and echinus (hedgehogs will) neossopoiisousin in these houses " (Isaiah, 13.19-22). "And you Babylon, quickly destroyed blessed and whoever you repay what you did. blessed is he who catch and crush their infants 16 your the rock. " (BB. Psalm 137 ἢ 136).
From the time of Isaiah So Babylon was cursed to remain in obscurity. The curse is the eternal annihilation was the historic response of "god" (priesthood) the Bible to those who razed the temple of worship and the holy city of Jerusalem. With the emergence of a brilliant world capital by Alexander, any notion of revenge and retribution would historian laughingstock. So Alexander, This adamant Makedonas Aftokratoras, wanted Babylon the capital of his empire, They had to die now, before he could rebuild the cursed Babylon, the only city in history that was charged to crash land of Zion, the sacred city of Yahweh.
But what may have been a possible cause of Alexander's death; And it speaks of poisoning, since "no" from the usual poisons not show disease symptoms; To understand the real extent of the deleterious sorcery, should the materials of weapons to include and contaminants.
With the known to us symptoms of typhoid fever (typhoid fever) It is a very likely cause of death for Alexander. The microbial infectious raw material is easy to find in the summer months mainly, After:"The bacillus (of Eberth) multiply in polluted water from the feces and human secretions is sick. But often even the faeces of people who are not sick is the bacillus of typhoid fever and grows in damp and shady places sewerage ". For those who may have had their minds in infectious undermined Alexander's health and physical access to food of Alexander the thing did not present any particular difficulty: "Contamination occurs mainly through the digestive tract and the main transmission modes is the fruit and vegetable Sprinkling with contaminated water, and of course the water itself".
Moreover some interesting thoughts and coincidences:
- "After transfection typhoid has incubation cycle (without symptoms) 15-20 days». This precludes the possibility of, The contact of Alexander the bacillus of typhoid fever have occurred in the three-day wandering the swamps of Babylon, since no lag at all incubation time. also exempts himself Midio (the sommelier) suspicion of poisoning the same day one of Alexander's visit home, since no infectious material has no fever immediately, and Alexander before his visit to him had been a slight fever in the baths. Indeed simplifying things, we could assume that even the water of the baths, which often penetrates into the mouth of bathers, It could be the corner of Alexander infection, if someone with advanced knowledge sorcery looked contaminate this water with small amounts of a suitable material.
- "Typhoid fever after the event has cycle peak 10-15 days». Indeed the Makedonas Aftokratoras died febrile within the time limits the peak of infectious disease cycle.
- Alexander died in summer 13 June 323 e.g.. And that still haunt perfectly matches the version of typhoid: "The flare occurs during the hot summer months".
Alexander the Great died patiently suffering the horrible symptoms of febrile annihilation. The soldiers spent all before him, to bid farewell sternum time their bedridden leader, that even the antemortem burnout would find the courage to the farewell with a slight shake of the eyes and the head.Gone in age 33 years, nailed from the deadly wedge of deceit, like another Prometheus, leaving behind huge cultural influences throughout the known world. Nobody made of the life of the discovery of the guilty. Nobody did anything to clarify the causes of premature death and strange. Why; Probably because this is the fate of great history. The unsolved mystery of death as anekdikitou haunted the sphinx keeps twenty-three centuries chained with shackles kissable Caucasus of our historic icy indifference. [NB. With his marriage to the noble Persian Roxane Alexander wanted to symbolize the merger of the Greek world with Asians, which for some Asians tantamount to political suicide. Roxanne, Like his newborn son Alexander IV, after the untimely and "strange" death of the Great Macedonian, They killed instantly.]