Written by Chris Mparmpagiannidisena of the greatest mysteries of history, affecting up to nowadays the, all kinds of, researchers, is the sudden end of Alexander the great and the adventure of the mortal remains of. Guesses and estimates give and take over the centuries, However no clear, final and absolutely convincing answer don't we have in our hands. In this perpetual Vortex cases, the least we can do is, with ally the most reliable sources, to illustrate the tragic those facts and let everyone move on his own crises. The last known Alexander's business plan was the campaign in Arabia, which went a little parapisw, due to the sudden death of Ifaistiwna. Alexander, Since he was a majestic funeral with prices on hero child friend in Babylon, the days those were devastated and depressed, However he participated in sacrifice for the impending departure in Arabia.We are located at 28 May 323p. Ch. The same evening, after they left the close associates of the dinner they had cited, one partner Thessalus, the Midios, invited him to his home. The Midios was likable and amiable to Alexander and the actually made the mood. Next he went on Midioy and drank excessively. Unwell in palaces turned, loystike and fell into bed with a high fever. On the morning of May 31st, She felt even worse. All the thrills and adventures of recent years, the numerous symposia, had weakened. Even went to his bed at the altar for the daily morning sacrifice. Lying, invited the heads of the army and gave orders for the campaign that would begin at 4 June. The night to pull him back onto the bed on the Euphrates and by ferry passed across to the large garden which dominated there. Bathed having fever and shivering. The next stayed on with kamara company Midio, He made up. Though, the fever does not fall.

At 2 June asked nearchos be postponed for a day the campaign did and recover. Nearchos of told his journey into the ocean (Indian) and Alexander would rejoice that we lived and that such adventures. At 3 June sacrificed and shouted the heads of Navy, asking them to be all ready for the impending departure in two days. Though, the fever and malaise continued to pay and the next couple of days. At 5 June urged all generals in the Palace. He acknowledged them all, but he could no longer speak. Meanwhile, throughout the Babylon learned the fact of sickness and Macedonians soldiers in strimwchnontan Palace to see their King. Feared lest he had already died, While wept and threatened to open the gate. Eventually, the gate opened and one behind each other went to his bed. Alexander anasikwne won the head and bit his right hand and egnefe with the look on old companions. At 9 June, the generals Persuader, Peykestas and Seleucus, went to Serapeio temple to ask what was best to do, staying in palaces or carry him somewhere else. The "God" gave them the response: "To stay there, better would be ". And the next day, at 10 June, Alexander died. Wailing and odyrmos resonated in the chaotic halls of palaces. Then silence fell. He covered them all thinking what would happen now. All Babylon found outside the Palace and the future looked dark and ominous. Just from this moment and for some forty years starts the famous adventure story of his successors!They said that gave his ring, shortly before he died, the oldest of the seven bodyguards, the Perdikka, to seal some documents, but it is doubtful if the appointed heir. Alexander those moments of sternes, Neither could speak, nor had mental clarity to make such an important decision. The point is that from the first day of his death riots erupted between military units of the Macedonians, until you come, After some time, a compromise, brittle as it turned: the half-brother of Alexander and mentally unstable (to put it elegantly), Philip Arridaios and the unborn child (If were boy), defined as Kings of the great Macedonian state anymore.

Alexander c "the Macedonian or Alexander the great, King Macedonians. Statue on Thessaloniki's seafront

According to Diodorus, Alexander had written in written pleadings of five designs, which were rejected as extravagantly and unrealistically by the Council of generals. The most important was the construction of a thousand warships for the campaign in the West. The second was the construction of six huge churches: in honor of Zeus at Dion, Artemis in Amphipolis, Athena at Kyrro (between Pella and Edessa, South of the village Aravissos), Delos, in Dodona and Delphi. The third draft was talking about setting up a gigantic pyre in Babylon at the cost of many talents, to honor the memory of Ifaistiwna. The fourth project involved the construction of a pyramid, greater and of Egypt, in honor of his father, Philip. The latter was designed exchanges and population movements between Europe and Asia, in order to achieve this coalescing, they had expected Alexander, between East and West. However, Arrian, that is the most reliable source, Once retrieved from the notes of Ptolemy and Aristovoulos, who lived the events next to Alexander, writes: ' Personal, I cannot say with precision what plans had Alexander nor I care to guess. But what it seems to me that I can say is that Alexander had nothing small or insignificant in his mind· nor would remain uneventful in areas that had already conquered, even if you add the Europe to Asia and the British Isles. Over and above these, I wanted to find something unknown yet, erizontas not with anyone else, but with himself ". Arrian, (G):1 However what,What's he thinking of, the bottom line is that nothing reared. The case or the category that Alexander found death by poison – a low dose of strychnine would fit with the symptoms – it was inevitable. Indeed, the "Kingdom Newspapers", official State Archives, published a document that was contradicted something. However we cannot exclude. Maybe some top Macedonians had no other way to stop the megalomania of exorientalistiki, I had him make very distant. Now as regards the speculations that died from disease syphilis type (the most widespread kafeneiaki view) or from typhoid or from something else unknown, We cannot adopt, and certainly not to the reject.

The luck of the corpse is an unsolved mystery. His body, After taricheytike, She stayed almost two years in a luxurious tent in Babylon, where was a pilgrimage site for thousands of nationals of. Then it was decided to be repatriated in Macedonia, to be buried in the old Royal Cemetery at Aigai. Though, on their way thither, was stolen from the new satrap of Egypt, Ptolemy of Lagoy, one of the children's companions of Alexander and his classmate at Aristotle's teachings, in Mieza, He was exalted to the rank of Marshal of the new empire of Alexander. Ptolemy buried the first bunch in Memphis, the old capital of the Pharaoh. Later, the bunch in his capital, Alexandria, where from 306p. Ch. ruled as King of Egypt. The brilliant mausoleum and Tomb survived even during the era of Octavian Augustus, the first Roman Emperor (29e.g.. – 14 m h.). There are later references suggest that the place where it was located was still known. From late Antiquity, however, (about 3om. X. αι.) and after he has disappeared without leaving any trace. Therefore, in accordance with references sources, the corpse was left two years ago in Babylon and after stealing it from Ptolemy, resulted in an imposing monument in Alexandria. These reports are that more official we have in our hands. Alexander's mother, the cunning Olympiad, She was convinced that her son was murdered and had vowed that he would bring the bunch in Macedonia. Did tried something and succeed; But again, knowing the megalomania and aytarchikotita of, will bury so in secret and "some smart Roadsters leaked", without fanfare, her son, the Conqueror of the world; The sources do not make nor allusion to something. Something I had written about the burial of the largest King of the world! Does the next King of Macedonia, the able but ruthless Kassandros, the bunch on home turf; Unlikely! Firstly, because the Kassandros with deadly misoyntan Olympiad. Secondly, If you bring the bunch in Macedonia, It would be a great advantage, primarily moral and psychological, for Alexander the Iv, his son Alexander the great, that was an area which in honorary captivity together with his mother Roxane, in Amphipolis. It was known that the Macedonian people were loyal to the official Royal House and kassandros won't riskare the consolidation of power. But Ptolemy did not eventually took the bunch from Babylon but a fake of; Maybe in Alexandria all venerated a Cenotaph; The fact is that getting the bunch, gain a psychological advantage over the other successors. It is undeniable that many Macedonians soldiers followed Ptolemy in Egypt simply because he owned the bunch. So big specific weight and influence mystical dimensions arise from possession of corpses of great King! Definitely, Ptolemy took the body having awareness of his great influence on simple Macedonian soldier. It is unknown how many soldiers, Apart from his great reputation, considered worthy successor of Alexander, Tolomeo, Once up and his great King "follower" General. However, from political tactic Ptolemy took out!

But if we take the official view that Soros moved indeed and was buried in Alexandria, What was then; We could assume, that's when Alexandria was a Christian city, the authorities and the citizens of Christians made disasters of buildings of national. Know the violence of the Byzantines and the annihilation of thousands of followers of the ancient religion and monuments of. Likely, the tomb of Alexander to fell "victim" of this Christian fundamentalism. But if something similar happened not, Maybe the raids of Arabs, eventually conquered Egypt, to complete the destruction of the monument. However, all are assumptions. cause of death, the grandiose plans and his tomb, remain a alytos puzzle, a great mystery, that may be and preferable outcome, If there is, this eternal search. The metaphysical dimension surrounds this exploration, maybe make it more charming. Indicative bibliography Johan Gustav Droysen: The story of Alexander the great, Ed. Eleftherotypia Paul Cartledge: Alexander, the search for a new past, Ed. Livanis. Plutarch: Alexander, Ed. Cactus. Diodorus: Historical Library, Ed. Zitros. Arrian: Anabasis Alexandrou, Ed. Cactus. | the story of the Greek Kings of the Hellenistic India

The Ellinoϊndiko Kingdom there was a continuation of the Hellenistic Kingdom of Bactria capital Gandara. Held by the 2nd as the 1st century BC.. It was the center of Ellinoboydismoy. The Greek Bactrian Kingdom was founded in 250 e.g. from the Greek Bactrian satrap of Diodoto (a)’ the Savior , who seceded from the Seleykideis. Was-together with the subsequent Indoelliniko Kingdom- the easternmost edge of the Hellenistic world, covering an area between the Bactrian and
The Sogdian kentrikisAsias-modern northern Afghanistan- from the 250 e.g.. until the 125 e.g.. The expansion of the Greco-baktrianoy Kingdom in northern India from the 180 e.g.. He established the Indoelliniko Kingdom that endured until the 10 a.d, and was the center of
Ellinoboydismoy. The Kingdom for two centuries developed trade with India and China and spread in the Valley of the Ganges until the northern part of katalythike from Scythian nomadic tribes. THE Agathocles of Syracuse was a Greek King of India from to167 BC. until the 165 e.g.. During the reign of issued coins with depictions of his predecessors. Also issued coins in dual language, the Greek and the local Indian dialect. For illustration the use local iconography and Indian deities. The Pantaleon was a Greek King of Arachwsias and Kantchara, areas of the former Kingdom of Bactria and India, by to190 e.g.. until the 180 e.g.. Succeeded Agathocles. Released diglwsa currencies with local iconography. The Apollodotos the First was a Greek King of Bactria and India from the 165 e.g.. until the 163 e.g.. Minted new coins, and a new heavier weight, which widely circulated among the Indians. O Menadros (or Milinta in Hindi) was a Greek King tisBaktrias from the 163 e.g.. until the 145 e.g.. Born in Paramisades, region of the Kingdom of Bactria, It is unknown to most of his life before he became King. He came from a poor family and small followed the military profession. When the Eykratidis invaded Bactria and reached the capital, the Taxilla, the Menadros was invited to the face. The Menadros succeeded in blocking the troop of Eykratidi and carried with him a lot of battles without substantial predominance of one of the two opponents. At the same time the Parthians seeing invaded the Kingdom of Eykratida forcing him to leave Bactria by treaty with the Menandro. Menander was proclaimed King, and married the widow of the previous King Agathokleia Agathocles. Minted coins with Greek performances, with the indication «VASSILEOS SOTIROS MENANDROU " (and on the back in Kcharosthi ' MAChARAGIA NTARMIKASA MENANTRASA», where reference is made to the concept of Dharma as a translation of "law") or more frequently "VASSILEOS SOTIROS MENANDROU" (and on the reverse side the words «MENANTRASA» TRATASA MAChARAGIA). Embraced and promoted Buddhism and Indian tradition called Milinda. Has written an Indian epic (unknown author) for the Milinda Pancha Menadro, which refers to the Menadroy with the Indian wise Nagkasena. Waged many battles with the neighboring States and adding new lands to the Kingdom of. He died in 145 e.g.. during the campaign. O Straton of Sardis was King of Bactria from the 130 e.g.. until the 110 e.g.. Symbasilepse, because she was a minor, with the mother of Agathokleia. With the coming of, and after he had died and his mother, He assumed the throne. But the Government put the Bactria on adventures because of his inability to command. During the reign of the Antialkidas, Eykratidis ruler Kingdom of Bactria, invaded Basileio and captured Taxila forcing the Stratwna to use Pantapotamia. From there he learned that his brother Apollodotos I had taken the throne. The Diodotidis Ippostratos was a Greek King of Bactria. Reigned from 85 e.g.. until the 70 e.g.. He was founder of a small Kingdom that included the Arachwsia and the Gandarida. The Telephus was Indo-Greek King, rather short in Gkantara. When exactly reigned is not known, historians theorize that reigned on the mid-1st century BC. The Amyntas nikator was a King of the 85 e.g.. until the 75 e.g.. His Kingdom included the Valley of present-day Kabul. The 80 e.g.. the Amyntas captured Paropamisada and transferred the prwteyoysa of Alexandria to Kaykasw. Minted coins with Greek performances. The Ermaios was the son of a Greek King of Amynta and Bactria from the 50 e.g.. until the 30 e.g.. Married to Kalliopi, daughter of Ippostratoy and joined the two Greek kingdoms of Bactria in a, restraining competition and Division of many years. Recaptured many areas of Bactria. At the end of the reign of the basileio of not bore nomadic raids and had syriknwthei so, so was limited to the Kabul Valley. Eventually the 30 e.g.. the Kingdom collapsed. 30 eg: the nomads Sakas, under the chieftain Spalirisi, conquer India.

Indoelliniko_vasileio.svg | The House of Argead or Temenids


Vergina Sun Crest Argead dynasty


With regard to the period of the founding of the Royal House of Macedonia nothing is perfectly clear. The beginning is placed between myth and history, the founder of allegedly lived about the same time with its founder House of Achaemenides. This coincidence becomes even more interesting, After the 6the e.g.. century Darius ' passed in Europe and made it the Amynta 1st vassal of, inaugurating a fatal rivalry for both Houses. Two centuries later the Alexander Iii passed in Asia and campaigned against the Achaimenidikis Empire. The fourth year of hostilities murdered Darius Iii, the eleventh time died, Alexander Iii and with them died and the two Royal Houses.

According to Herodotus, three sons of Timenoy, the Gayanis, the Aeropos and the Perdiccas I, driven out of the country from Argos and took refuge first in Illyria and after in the city Lebaia of upper Macedonia, where bioporizontan making sure local animals (I guess Paiona) ruler. When it appeared something was interpreted as a divine warning, Regulus he ordered them to leave the country of. Those requested accrued wages and he "blinded by the gods"I showed them the rays of the Sun, entering through the chimney of the House, telling them "To the salary, you deserve». The two biggest were surprised, but the younger they had sword, the pulled out and saying "King we accept everything,what you give us», prospoieito that was gathered from the soil the sunbeams and put on the robe of.

After they left the three brothers, King stalked them considering that the youngster had raised claims of Perdiccas the throne and throughout its territory under the Sun. Those fled over "gardens of Midas"and starting from the Mount Vermio captured first the neighboring places and after all Macedonia. Delivered and the myth that was followed by a flock of kids Perdiccas and point, who stopped kids (goats), He decided to build his capital, which reasonably named Aigai.

Argead path – from Argos to Macedonia

The royal dynasty of Macedonia was named Timenides ή Argeades, because the three brothers were sons of Timenoy from Argos. The coat of arms of the Royal House was not known, until the discovery of the tomb of Philip Ii. Then it was found that it was the so-called "Sun of Vergina», We refer directly to Allen of Herodotus and the collection of the Sun's rays by Perdikka, the alleged founder of the dynasty.

In the genealogy of the Macedonian Kings Alexander I is focal person. For most predecessors essentially nothing is known except maybe the name. Alexander's First involvement in the Persian wars turned out Macedonia from historical obscurity and the combined action of the southern Greek States and Macedonia in the geographical area of what is now Greek Macedonia, that until then belonged to different peoples Paionikoys, throw enough light on coming Kings. For Alexander's predecessors First rely on Herodotus and the complete genealogy of Macedonian Kings arises as follows.:

Aegae – Perdiccas I_ tetradrachmo_ 500 e.g.

Perdiccas I: reportedly reigned early 7th century

Mount Erciyes 1st: He succeeded his father and reigned at the end of 7th century

Philip I: He succeeded his father and reigned in the early 6th century.

Statiras_Aeropos_398-395-4 b.c.

Aeropos: minor yet succeeded his father the 588 and reigned until 568 e.g..

Alketas: He succeeded his father and reigned between 568 and 540 e.g..

Amyntas I Of Constantinople: son of Alketa and father of Alexander I. Rose to the throne 540 e.g.. and gave land and water to Ambassadors of Darius. On days of Macedonia became part of the European satrapeias of Achaemenides.

Silver oktadrachmo_basileia Alexander I_460 b.c.

Alexander I: son of Amynta 1st, ascended the throne in 498 BC Was known throughout Greece during the campaign of Xerxes, so being a vassal King of the Persians («Macedonian yparchos») informing the rebellious Greeks about Persians. Before the Battle of Thermopylae alerted the Greek forces before the battle of plataea notified to the Athenians the war plan of Mardonioy. After the end of the war extended Macedonia until the Struma. When he wanted to take part in the Olympics, to whom were allowed to participate only Greeks, umpires had to prove to the Greek of origin.

Currency Perdikka II 451-413 e.g.

Perdiccas Ii: son of Alexander I. He succeeded his father the 454 BC and symbasileyse with his brother Philip, who died early.

Didrachmo _Archelaos II_399 BC

Archelaus: illegitimate son of Perdikka Ii. The 413 e.g. he usurped the throne, but emerged in worthy leader. According to Thucydides was the 9ND King of the dynasty and made for Macedonia more than they had done all the previous Kings together. He transferred the capital from Aigai in Pella.

Macedonia on Basel Amynta II

Amyntas Ii: the 393 e.g. succeeded Archelao, reigned as the 389 BC and is often confused with the next.

Statiras_Amyntas III

Amyntas Iii: son of Arridaioy, great-grandson of Alexander a., father of Philip Ii and grandfather of Alexander the great. The 389 e.g.. He succeeded Amynta Ii and the 383 e.g.. the dethroned the Mount Erciyes, a noble from the Lynkestis. The 381 e.g.. with the help of Thessalian dethroned the Argaio and recaptured the throne as the 369 e.g..

Alexander Ii: son of Amynta Ii, He took the throne in 369 e.g.. Attacked in Thessaly, but internal wrangling forced him to return to Macedonia. The 367 e.g.. the murdered the Ptolemy, one partner from Alwro of Bottiaias, who took his sons Commissioner Amynta Iii, Perdikka and Philip.

Currency Perdikka III head of Hercules

Perdiccas Iii: son of Amynta III and Philip's eldest brother. The 365 e.g.. murdered Ptolemaeus Alwriti and rose to the throne. The 359 e.g.. killed in battle against the Illyrian, that pushed the frontiers of Macedonia chock.

Philip II

Philip Ii: He was born in 383 e.g., He was the son of Amynta Iii and Eurydice and brother of Perdikka Iii. He was initiated in Cabeiri mysteries of Samothrace at the same period with the Olympiad, daughter of Neoptolemus and sister Alexander I Of Constantinople the Molossians. It remained as a hostage in Thebes since 368 e.g.. until the 359 e.g..

The 359 e.g.. When he was informed that his eldest brother and King was killed attempting to repel the Illirians, escaped from Thebes and took over the throne of Macedonia. Won the strategic resources of Thrace, modernised the Macedonian army turning him into professional and applied aggressive and expansionist policy. Using military force and the acquisition of always eager politicians, charged by the Macedonian Hegemony in Greece. They say that he boasted more for diplomatic and strategic prudence rather than for his bravery in battle, Because naval feats were admitted all militating, While the diplomatic successes were exclusively his own.

The 357 e.g.. He married Olympiad and did with her two children, the Alexander (356 e.g.) and the Cleopatra (355 e.g.). The 338 e.g.. founded at Corinth the Combined meeting of the Greeks and declared a nationwide campaign against the Persians. The 337 He sent troops in Asia, to proparaskeyasoyn invasion, and the next year was murdered at the behest of Grand King the theatre of Aigai in his daughter's weddings, Cleopatra.

Alexander III the great


Alexander Iii the great: son of Philip Ii and Olympias. He succeeded his father the 336 e.g., the following year imposed its sovereignty in all Thrakikoys folks as the Istro, destroyed Thebes and exegertheisa 334 invaded Asia. Subjugated the whole Achaemenid Empire and India up to the river Yfasi. He died in June 323 in Babylon.

THE Plutarch He says he was born on 6the Ekatomvaionos, i.e. the 21the Jul 356 e.g.. When Arriano, lived 32 years and 8 months, with reverse measurement from the 13the June 323 e.g., the absolutely certain date of death that gives us Plutarch, We find as the birth date October 356 e.g.. This is a very typical example of how insecure method is the combination of information from different sources, but in this case the difference of about three months in date of birth is not a problem.

For the birth of Alexander recorded various omens, supposedly prominyan the victorious action of, though we should certainly constructed a posteriori. Plutarch says that Philip had just overwhelmed the Potidaea, When he got three messages: the Parmenion He won the Illirians in great battle, a horse beat at the Olympics and Finally he was born Alexander. Still says that the day of his birth was burned the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, something that was seen as a bad omen for the fate of Asia, the orator Hegesias from the Magnesia listening to the Association allegedly sarkase that it made sense to burn the Temple of Artemis, After as Patron Goddess of childbirth was busy with the momentous event of the birth of Alexander. THE Justin He says that at birth two eagles stayed on the roof of the family home all day, prolegontas its sovereignty in Europe and Asia.

Roman medal issued on Caracalla which represents the Olympiad.

His mother Olympiad, It has been described as impulsive and jealous, While not delivered any positive element of the character of, which raises the suspicion that he had been a victim of slander. We must not forget that Philip was very flirtatious and that Olympias was the third, or fourth out of a total of six or seven wives, While it is unknown the number of mistresses of. With all others, wives and mistresses, did children and created in Olympiad reasonable anxiety for the succession of her son, the only male child of Philip True.

Philip Arridaios_archaiologiko Museum of Naples

Another male child of, the Philip Arridaios, It was illegitimate, something that though has not prevented others in the past to occupy the throne, like didn't stop eventually and Arridaio himself to succeed Alexander. The physical condition of Arridaioy seems that gave another impetus to propaganda to hurt the reputation of the Olympics. It is assumed that in the early years of his life was a remarkable boy and that Olympias with various poisons disturb the physical and mental health.

Other propaganda spurious spin is the story that Philip saw her sleeping with a Dragon beside her, feared that someone God transformed into a reptile syneyriskotan with his wife and so I psychrathike with her. This looks to be a good reason for the divorce of Philip from that spouse, However not delivered the reasons for the rest of diazygia.

It is assumed that it was Philip, because the Oracle of Delphi certified with Oracle that the Sands had transformed him the Dragon and the Cuckold husband would lose his eye for punishment, that kryfokoitaxe God. The Oracle reportedly was verified during the siege of Methone, so Philip traymatisthike in the eye, and blinded. Do not avoid the temptation to recall that the Jupiter had she has sexual intercourse with the Alcmene, wife King of Thebes Amfitrywna and fruit of the collaboration was Hercules. So proportions between propaganda creation for the divine origin of Alexander and the legend for the ancestor may not be random.


Reasons to campaign at the expense of the Olympiad were mainly Philip, to justify the rejection of the wife who gave him a genuine successor, the Kassandros, She had suffered heavy attacks from both Alexander and from the Olympiad, which furthermore bebilwse the grave of his brother, But Alexander himself, they chose to implement the administrative standard of Orientals God-King. Will never be able to see through the veil of slander the real character of Olympias, He probably was quite different than that delivered. Because she was the daughter King, He knew very well the anaktorikes intrigues, How to cope with the alliances of opponents and how to safeguard the interests of her son on the throne.

In Olympiad katamartyreitai mixing in politics, so before Alexander become King, and until the last days of. One theory wants Olympics involvement as one of the factors, that prompted the Antipatro to arrange the assassination of Alexander with poison. The information of Plutarch that Alexander "She was the mother of many gifts, but not allowed to meddle in the political or military stuff"simply means that Alexander nor consult nor had been appointed to this role, not that she does not intervene. Given the marginal status of women in ancient Greece it was inevitable to cause the wrath of many eminent men, and certainly its rivals.

The influence of Olympias to Alexander was important, both because of the physical relationship between mother and son and marital instability of Philip, that create insecurity in conditionally successor. The head of the first educators and tutors of Alexander was a relative of the Olympiad, Leonidas. Another teacher, the L. Akarnanas, It is said that he called himself Phoenix. Several younger mostly writers attribute it to Alexander admiration or even identification with Achilles, but not on the basis of available sources. The information that Alexander under his pillow beside the manual had a copy of Iliad, derived from the Onisikrito and therefore are not reliable.

Alexander (left) and Ifaistiwn_moyseio Gkety

The only reliable information about the subject is that as soon as apobibasthikan in Asia, He filed a wreath on the grave of Achilles and the Ifaistiwn STOU Patroklou. Though this may simply mean the start of a new campaign Trwikis, Since it was the first national campaign after the Trojan war.

When Alexander was 13 years and had to start the next cycle studies, Philip removed him from Pella and sent him in Nymphaion of mieza. New teacher took over the Aristotle from stageira and tuition of included the reconstruction of the birthplace of the philosopher by Philip, they had earlier destroyed, as well as the restoration of exiles and exandrapodismenwn Stageiritwn. In addition to moral and political taught Alexander and some deeper and secret doctrines, which they called "akroatikes and supervisory».

When Alexander them now in Asia, He learned that Aristotle had issued some relevant books, allegedly sent letter, that complained about the publication. Noted in the old master that, If these teachings were all estate, I have been treated spiritually the few to the many, and that the same more interested to Excel the other in spirit rather than in another domain.

Alexander visits the Diogeni_pinakas of Jean-Baptiste_Regnault

About Alexander's interest for philosophy says that when Alexander went to Isthmus of Corinth (probably on the occasion of the convening of the Joint Conference of the Greeks 336-5 e.g.), He wanted to see the famous cynical philosopher Diogenes by Sinope. He went as the jar with ypaspistes and the pezetairoys and found him lying in the Sun. Asked what useful could offer and kynosofos told to leave himself and the sequence from front of, because of hiding the Sun. The general culture was the same with all senior social Greek, After the Harpalus sent to over (East) Asia books of Filistoy, several tragedies of Euripides, of Sophocles of Aeschylus and packaged them in Telestoy and of the Accommodating. Since the geographical knowledge of the ancient Greeks to Asia was incomplete, Alexander came to the wrong conclusion when he was in India.

From Plutarch's information shows that Alexander felt either competition to his father or insecurity, because the fickle erotic life of Philip kept in constant risk of inheritance of permissions. This uncertainty seems forced Alexander to constantly demonstrates his skills, as he describes the information that "He often expressed concern that his father would not leave any feat, to show the value of». The justified fears of Alexander verified, When at dinner on the occasion of the marriage of Philip the Cleopatra the Attalus wished to be born a genuine heir to the throne. Then Alexander outraged of flew in skyfo saying: «We athlie, you look for nothoi;». Philip challenged, He pulled his sword and moved against his son, but from the busted parapatise, to collect the sneer of Alexander: «He well, that is preparing to invade from Europe to Asia, grandma trying to pass from one bed to another!».

After that Alexander sent his mother's relatives on the continent and he resorted to the Illirians. Alone the fact that sought refuge in the always dangerous for Macedonia Illirians, puts us in reflections on his own intentions about his father or his father about him. It is clear that Philip got gravely offensive words of his son before all partners, because as we hear from the banished them personal friends Arriano of Alexander, Ptolemaeus of Lagoy, Harpalus of Machatas, Nearchos of Androtimoy, Erigyio and Laomedon of Larichoy, in an apparent attempt to deprive him of any foothold in the yard. When they returned from exile were restored to their former locations and because increased Alexander's confidence in their faces, the army later took leading positions. THE Ptolemy was a bodyguard, the Erygios Allied ipparchis, his brother Laomedon, who were bilingual, took the barbaric captives, the Harpalus was thisayrofylakas and the Nearhos initially satrap and eventually Admiral of the fleet all the way from the Ydaspi as Babylon.

Work of the French painter,Francois Schommer which depicted Alexander to the Boykefala_peri tames the 1935

With regard to Philip's feelings towards his son, recorded with clarity that loved him and appreciate him and that he intended for his successor. When to the surprise of all, Alexander the damase Alexandria bucephalous, Philip said to him "My child, Zeta Kingdom isaxio Sou, because Macedonia not to fit». When Philip was campaigning against Byzantium, appointed Deputy Alexander. He though 16 years campaigned against Maidwn, they found opportunity to rise up, the crashed, they drove away from their city, the epoikise with mixed population and renamed to Alexandroupoli.

Of Course, This information could have constructed a posteriori, to show that from an early age seemed how big it would become Alexander, However the important thing is that generally Philip nowhere does not occur with negative predisposition towards Alexander, rather said to rejoice, When we called him General and Alexander King. The clearest evidence that Philip intended Alexander for his successor is given by the following incident.

When he sent the Parmeniwna and the Attalus in m. Asia, to prepare for the invasion of the main forces, the Pixwdaros, the usurper of recessive to the Persians throne of Caria, He was pretty sure about the success of the project and rushed to benefit suggesting kinship and Alliance. Then the Olympias and several friends persuaded Alexander, his father negotiated the marriage of his son with the fictitious Group, his daughter Kara King, because he had decided the crowding the. The always insecure about his rights to the throne Alexander sent in Pixwdaro a tragic actor from Corinth, the Moldavia, with message to prefer to groom him, that was a genuine son of Philip instead of Arridaioy, that was illegitimate and not healthy mentally. The unexpected Pixwdaro kolakeyse the counter-proposal and infuriated Philip, you just learned went to Alexander's room with a loyal partner and friend, the Filota of Parmeniwna, epetimise strictly his son calling him irreducible and unworthy for the surrounding of the goods, After you chose as a father-in-law barbarian, He was a slave to the barbaric King. By Plutarch, Alexander's friends, Harpalus, Nearhos, Frygios and Ptolemy, He had drifted to this action were evicted, If and when Arriano, that was based on the memoir of Ptolemy, the exile imposed on them after the misunderstanding the wedding dinner.

The ten thousand exclaiming Thalassa – Thalassa!!_ Bernard Granville Baker's table, 1901

With regard to military training and especially in the fields of tactics and strategy is not mentioned in ancient sources. Though from the information of Plutarch, that from an early age she was asking the Persians ambassadors for the military organization of the State, We conclude that part of the amazing organization, He had done Philip, was the collection of critical information for Persia. The feat of Myriwn It was relatively recent and had shocked the Greek world, so for the first time the Greeks orators (as political analysts) to realise the potential of their military forces and the weaknesses of the Persian war machine. The first Greek politicians, they wanted to see this fact was the Jason of Ferron and Philip of Macedonia. Thus Alexander must know if not all writings Xenophon, However the Cyrus Climb, containing the instructions, How to move the Army invasion in Persian territory. For the accuracy, It turns out that Alexander had studied at least this project, because already in European campaign used the askoschedies She had seen the Xenophon in Assyria, and mainly because it applied pressure rapid advance and direct fray with the Persian forces, as they had done and the ten thousand.

For such an important historical figure like Alexander, who lived before 25 centuries and survived four minutes works only writers and those not full, It's perfectly reasonable separation failure between propaganda and reality. The question, therefore, whether the success of the campaign is its own achievements and whether the Administration can be given safe response. What is certain is that the Macedonian team was staffed with officers, the other Greek States had ceased from decades to have, and abilities of staff of outright major proved by successfully holding and governance of conquered peoples some time after the death of Alexander.

In India, the easternmost edge of possessions, 500 years later continued to govern Greek Kings and West about three centuries later, Despite the conquest of nearly all of the territories by the Romans, the Greek imposed Alexander remained the official language of Asian territories. Because before Philip Macedonian state was between servitude and limited sovereignty, While immediately after the assassination of his successor became the most famous conqueror in history of mankind, doesn't fit the slightest doubt that both the Macedonians makers as Alexander himself were creations of Philip's organization strategy.

The query for the value of Alexander in connection specifically with the Parmeniwna in the field of strategy and tactical becomes even harder to answer, because the ordered murder of old General imposed the further degradation of the contribution of. So we will never know if it's real objections, It is recorded that he had the Fairytales. There is no doubt that Parmenion disappear, After he had crushed the regular army of Persians and after he had delivered the entire political and military leadership of the Empire. Indeed after the death of Alexander Parmeniwna not encountered another regular army equivalent of the Persian. Who may underestimate the abilities of Alexander, When in Sogdiana He managed to avoid a crash, even if we had to pay with an unwanted marriage

The battle of Granikoy_pinakas of Charles_Le_Brun,_ 1665

The Court attributed to the metathanatiws propaganda Parmeniwna misguided proposals at major competitions and selections. When the army arrived at Graniko It was already afternoon and the Persians arranged on the opposite bank. The Fairytales reportedly proposed attack early the next dawn, before they can take out boxes the Persians, While Alexander has chosen the direct involvement. I.e. the Parmenion suggested a stratagem (tactical trick) like those describing the Polyaenus, While Alexander preferred to follow the instructions Xenophon. Having taken this decision, left to spend the aquatic obstacle with minimal casualties from the Persian toxeymata burst. Chosen to precede a small section horsemen, I pulled the toxeymata of paraplanithentwn the Persians and the rest passed without losses. The authorship of this choice is unknown and implicitly attributed to Alexander.

In Gaygamila Alexander again wanted the direct involvement, but the Parmenion convinced him to wait up to recognize sufficiently the ground. Then the Parmenion reportedly suggested nocturnal RAID, to scan the Persian lines. Alexander feared especially coordinating their forces because of the extended front and denied. Darius, who knew that the night attack was usual Greek regular, feared that will be applied and took the marshaled forces on the ground all night. So hit the morale of soldiers and helped Alexander to win. In this battle, the last great tactics throughout the campaign and Parmeniwna, the communicators of Alexander took the opportunity to implant raw pretexts for the execution of.

Total, from the Battle of Issus doesn't show anything useful in our approach and of the battles of Granicus and of Gaugamela It appears the Fairytales to seek fast break of the enemy, But Alexander prefers direct and frontal attack, in order to not be able to develop in the army of bad psychology due towards the overriding Persian forces and to use the previous victories as a ptoisis factor of the opponent.

412px-the fall of MIlitoy_ergo of Andre_Castaigne_(1898-1899)

In Miletus the Fairytales reportedly suggested conducting maritime operations alongside land and Alexander to the rejected. Of Course, just a few weeks later was forced to conduct naval operations, mainly defensive, to protect the Islands from the attacks of the Persian fleet, However this decision of Alexander wasn't completely wrong. His mistake was the demise of the fleet rather than the decision to avoid head-on confrontation with the Persian fleet. THE fleet of Joint Conference numbered 160 ships, While the Persian 400, that's why Alexander preferred to sever from the supply bases of capturing the Mediterranean. The choice was then, After the Persian fleet, that consisted mainly of Cypriot and Palm trees, overpowered when he had occupied the entire coastline as the Tyros. It is therefore by no means certain that a naval engagement, as suggested by Parmenion, would have more positive than negative effects.

Roman bust of a Greek General which might belong in Parmeniwna_400 p. Ch_moyseio Vatican

If misguided opinion of Parmeniwna is not totally trumped, the truth might be hidden behind another crucial choice. The proposal of Parmeniwna to Alexander, to accept what's offered by Darius second letter and to capitulate by entry into force, It was entirely consistent with the decisions of the Joint Conference of the Greeks as well as the political and military education. But Alexander rejected, because I just wanted to match the common decision to punish the Persians with his personal quest to become myself Grand King in place of the great King.

Plutarch delivers that Alexander had possible xaraktira, don't flinch at brawls unless peithotan with logical arguments and therefore Philip rather convinces him only the commands. Exagriwnotan and paraferotan, When he said he loves the glory more than power or his life, but in the country of Mallwn We need to understand completely the difference between General and soldier. When he learned that two Macedonians, the Damon and the Timotheos, were you suddenly committed sacrilege on women synakoloythoyses some mercenaries, the boss ordered Parmeniwna to investigate the matter and, If the allegations wrong, to punish the perpetrators "as if they were wild animals». Alexander was General Emperor, attempting to extended front against him as then kosmokratora and we couldn't expect anything less from imposing discipline on the army of iron.

With regard to the other elements of his character, It is said that they were generally rough and impetuous, but don't pander to bodily pleasures. In the early years of his life was taught the frugality of the Leonida, who controlled probing individual items did Olympias had given hidden more or by absolute necessary befall. As an additional element of the egkrateias we can consider and the fixed order of the host of expenses do not exceed the 10.000 Greek drachmas. But it seems that only the Temperance in eating and in luxury accompanied him until the end. While originally drank a little, during the operations in Sogdia was marching towards alcoholism, After the death of Ifaistiwna the army now suspend on full round-the-clock on course and expect Alexander to recover from the busted the previous night.


After the death of Darius was 'especially greedy for praise» and «Although I could [due to the education of] to understand better, He remained bound by the thirst for glory"says Arrian to sum up succinctly the change in character of. This change is mainly exwterikeythike by adopting the consolidated administrative template and Oriental all components of, like the Oriental clothing, God-King and the proskynisi of. To understand how outrageous was the adoption of barbarian customs, enough to ensure that the Aristotleò taught to Alexander and of course to all his disciples to bring "to the Greeks, although like in friends or relatives, the barbarians are not like animals or plants».

«He was incorruptible, but did he profusely donations, to meet others», i.e. the bribe, in order to cooperate willingly. The first corruption partners by Alexander lies on the eve of disembarkation in Asia, When they distributed the Royal estate. It is said that Perdiccas asked him what kept to himself and to the response of Alexander "the hopes"refused to accept the estate of King saying that he would wait to get the estate of Darius. Apart from the corruption here is one first connotation of Alexander's intent to not return again in Macedonia, Perhaps the first expression of the aspirations of Perdikka.

As was advancing deeper into Asia, the army and the less consistent with the mandate of the Joint Conference of Greeks be decisions of Alexander, so stronger were the reactions of the Macedonians of the old guard, increasingly had to rely on younger officers, becoming harder opponents and more generous was supposed to be the benefits of, to re-purchase the obedience of the willing. When Alexander returned from India, found that in the absence of many of the exagorasmenoys officials of, not waiting to review live, proved corrupt and predatory administration exercised thereby undoubtedly enrage them vassals peoples and endanger peace, he needed inside the Empire.

The extremely risky nature of resulted in injured many times, several especially serious. In the battle of the Granicus a blow kopidas broke in two the helmet and the wounded slightly on the head, at the battle of Issos thigh traymatisthike by sword, the siege of the Palestinian Gaza seriously traymatisthike in the shoulder from arrow catapult, that pierced the shield and thorax. In a clearing operation against rebels close to Sogdianwn Iaxarti an arrow hit him in the Shin and broke a piece out of the date., While at the siege of Kyroypolis was severely hit by rocks in the head and neck. The siege of a city of traymatisthike shoulder Aspiwn slightly by arrow, that the puncture of chest wall, the siege of Massagwn slightly traymatisthike in the ankle by arrow and the siege of the city of Mallwn traymatisthike near miss deadly from arrow in the chest. Plutarch believes that Alexander never fully healed from last trauma, that maybe he knew himself and that this led him to death nearly three years later.

Another element of his character appeared in his teens, When the 340 e.g. subjugated them Maidoys and according to Plutarch gave his name (Alexandropoli) in one city. Two years earlier the same had done and his father, when Macedonia was dismissed from the Illirians, He won the once powerful Odryses and was preparing to assert the Hegemony of Greece. But mutatis mutandis and Alexander did not pass something inferior. It was just 16 years, Regent of Macedonia and defeated a rugged oresibio people during the absence of Philip in campaign. Nevertheless the energy will certainly was regarded by his contemporaries as impudence and arrogance. We are judging the achievements must conclude that from very early distinguished great confidence, After a decade later, Alexander was perfectly justified, When organized one Alexandria after another.

The example of Philip and Alexander followed the rulers of the Hellenistic period, that gave cities of Europe, Asia and Africa their names or the names of their husbands, όπως Seleucia, Antioch, Kassandreia, Thessaloniki, Apamea. Then it was perfectly natural to follow the same practice the Romans (Edirne, Traianoupoli, Pompei etc), the Byzantines (Κωνσταντινούπολη, Eraclea etc) and European countries with imperial concept until long after the period of the great Explorations. So Kings, successors, explorers and adventurers gave their names to new (for Europeans) Islands (όπως Philippines, Marshall, Cook, Tasmania), countries (όπως Colombia, Rhodesia), even across continents (America).

Lion of Chaeronea

THE physique Alexander was not commensurate with the achievements of. In contrast to the Darius and his family, She was tall, He was so adorable, so the mother of Darius to suggest that King was the most Beefy Ifaistiwn and so need a table for his feet, not top floor, When Susa sat on the throne of Darius. It is also said that He did not know swimming, However none of these did not prevent fighting with bravery in the forefront. In Battle of Chaeronea at the age of 18 olds said that first broke through the lines of Ierou Lochou Thebes, in the battle of the Granicus was located just behind the misleading part and around it was the most stubborn ippomachia. Generally fought in the ranks of the Royal Cavalry corporate course, but whenever the situation demanded, led and other military departments. When the Tyrioi took by surprise and aposyntonisan the Cypriot fleet, came in at a pentiri and managed to repel them. Once triggered the decisive rift in walls of tyre, He was among the first who stepped. Στην siege of Saggalwn seeing that the cavalry could not overcome the enemy obstacles, xepezepse and attacked the Kathaioys Head of the Phalanx.

According to his pupil Aristotle, the philosopher Aristoxeno the Tarantino, Alexander was exactly as depicted the statues of Lysippus, his head was slightly to the left and his gaze was wet. His skin was white, and because highlighted sufficiently that the Apelles made a mistake in the table, that the depicted keraynoforo like Jupiter, and that yielded very dark, We conclude that were typically white. In addition he had a slight reddish tint in person and had no beard, While in several performances, as in famous mosaic of Pompeii, illustrated with typical sidebar. It is important to note that other partners, about peers, as the Ifaistiwn, also charted without beard. Several Hellenistic Kings they appear ageneioi leading us to the conclusion that Alexander introduced this trend, While the generation of Philip, both Greek and barbarian States, Beard stood out the men from the boys.

It seems that some ancient Greek writers had indulged in leaps to conceal that Alexander was as flirtatious with his father. Plutarch makes this attempt so clumsy, so shows like not really wanted to replicate the Court propaganda. Specifically says that Alexander believed the tall and beautiful Blinds "torment for the eyes», but it was so abstinent, in order to treat them like inanimate statues. At The Same Time, We don't hide that contracted relationships with fine and scholarly Barsine from whom he had a son, the Hercules. The saved Greek and Roman historians claim that Alexander had no involvement in the case unexplained pregnancy wife of Darius. End, the Roman historians attribute the authorship of another son of the Queen of Assakinwn Kleofida, but this story evokes so vividly Julius Caesar, Cleopatra and their son, so be discarded as fake.

Apart from the above two nobles and captive Blinds Alexander is not recorded to contracted relationships with other women, Perhaps because these were not superior origin. Plutarch denies that Alexander entered into relations with the "as the days of the year"and normally noble origin concubines, inherited from Darius, When it finally became Grand King, King of Kings and King of Asia. The first wife, the Roxane, It was unknown class Baktria and married, to move away from business backwater Sogdian. The marriage that was imposed by the despair and overshadowed another, that Alexander was preparing carefully for years. Nymfeyomenos as first (perhaps unique) wife of one of the two daughters of Darius, We have brought together the Royal Nursing of Argead and of Achaemenides and will ensure the same descendants of the rights to the throne of King of Asia. Things, however, forced him to take her as a second wife.

The Roxana with Alexander IV son of Max. Alexandroy_pinakas of Allesandro Varotari_1588-1648

Alexander Iv: He was born in 323, a few months after the death of his father, Alexander Iii. The army in Babylon proclaimed him King, together with the Arridaio Philip under the tutelage, initially the Perdikka and after the Antipatroy. Practically lived prisoner and eventually murdered the 311 at the age of 12 years with his mother, Roxane, from the Kassandros in Amphipolis. His grave is at Aigai (Vergína), next to the Tomb of Philip Ii



Herodotus a. 88, H. 93, 137-139

Xenophon Anabasis A.V. 9, G. II. 25

Arrian a. 23, C. 6, G. 2, G. 28

Plutarch Alexander 2, 3.1-9, 4.1-3, 4.8, 5.1, 5.4, 6.8, 7.1, 7.5-9, 9.1, 9.4-JV, 10, 21.10, 22.1-4, 23, 28.6, 39.11-13, 42.4, 45.3-Mrs e, 58.6, 67.7, 68.3-5, 75.1

On the Fortune or virtue of Alexander 329. B

Diodorus XVI. 21.4, 54.3, 95.3, Q.. 66.3-7

Justin 9.8.1, 11.11.3, 12.16.5)

Posted by Xeilwn in HISTORY1798828_10201473519546462_1875014534_n | THE PERI THE MOUNT PAGGAIO REGION


The term country pangeo, with the vast plains of Serres and Philippi, irrigated by the rivers Strymon and Aggitis, It was in antiquity much fertile, While at the substratum of hiding plenty of precious metals. It was so natural, throughout the course of this region into history, already by the early historic times, anyway and are closely tied to the stock of wealth, I pulled like a magnet cities, peoples and conquerors.


Starting from the flora of that country and from t "agricultural products produced in the land of, We are obliged to stand first and "devote a separate chapter of this in our article" a product that until now gives the area the most distinctive identity. This is t "vineyards and wine of Paggaio and especially the current Symbol conditions, (which the ancient Greeks didn't commonly resolved by Pangeo), that the abundant and long-lasting presence testify, Apart from historical sources, numerous shells craters and oinochown located in the ruins of ancient settlements of the region.


(from Abbott's book, Macedonian Folklore, Cambridge 1903, p. 279-289)


"Anything smells Antiquities", says Abbott, "attributed by the villagers of Macedonia in two great kings of this country. The songs and their traditions, for which they are very proud, consider that relate to "years of Philip and Alexander-and of Hercules", a condensed period in which share all remnants of the past with impeccable fairness.
Going from Drama to Kavala, and a little aside from the road, are the compact remnants of an ancient gate that faces towards the ruins of Philippi. This building remnant known in the popular masses as "the Palace of Alexander the great".
In Ntemir i.e. "Chissar Sidirokastro», on the railway line Thessaloniki-Serres, There are remains of an old Castle or fortress, overlooking the Gorge, on the sides of which the town is wedged. These ruins are attributed to King Philip. A stone container that was discovered in the Gorge a while ago, immediately dubbed safe or vault of King Philip. The same romantic tradition distinguishes, two smooth stones that lie on the rocky shore of a local river which crosses the Gorge, "laundry room" on which the King's daughters, the daughters of King Philip, go and leykainan their clothes, just like they do the "Macedonian women" until our days.
The two individual rocks on the plain of Serres, already mentioned as «Drakopetres»(1), called by residents of Nigrita "Stones of Alexander the great", implying that he has thrown. Didn't had lived in an era in which, According to remarks from a agwgiati, «God tried them antreiwmenoys»;.
Also, near the village Cross, on the East coast of Halkidiki, just north of the location where they are placed by many stageira, the birthplace of Aristotle, an unnamed mountain rises on maps that are known to the villagers as "the Mountain of Alexander ' or, less rightly, "Alexandra", a designation of particularly successful in a range of associated
with the name of the famous teacher of Alexander.
South of the Cross lies the village Lymtziasda, locals trace the name of the mother of Alexander (the Olympiad), a reduction of the ' not unlikely "according to Leake. The browser that renders, less well, the name of the village as Lympiada and on the etymology notes that the failure of the initial "o" and the conversion of Lympiada to Lymptziada under the ordinary course of lesions due to the influence of Latin language after the Roman conquest.
In the same paragraph the Leake notes that "in a location just below the Palace of Aga of the Castle, where some remains of columns are still visible, It is said that were the Mint of Alexander.
Both the Turks and Greeks, even the poorest villagers, It is impregnated with the history of Alexander, Although sometimes this story is eerily distorted, and not infrequently confused with Alexander Skanderbeg».
Spell the name of Alexander the great used to banish the demons of tornado is yet another example of the strength of tradition, and also highlights the amazing Halo which, during the centuries of ignorance, has gathered around the personality of the great King. In popular perception Alexander fills an aspect similar to that held by the Solomon on Arabian nights and other oriental compositions. Credited with a mysterious power over the spirits of evil, and his name is able to exorcise………………………
……..It need merely be pointed out that the narrative under the popular name “Hero of Alexander the great”, It's long been a favorite readings of the lower classes throughout the Greek world, and has helped more than anything else to keep the memory of the great conqueror(3) fresh and confused. Many such tabloids sold annually to the peasants of Macedonia by itinerant booksellers and by such a hero gained with the paltry amount of a piastroy, equal to 2,25 Sterling (2)….”


(1) At pages 263-64, Abbott (evoking the work of a. d. Gousiou "in country Pageon…», Leipzig 1894) notes that the ' Drakopetres ' (or "Stones of Alexander the great", in the Nigritini version) is "two lonely rocks on the plain of Serres, not far from the village of Lakkovikia ", (old Mesolakkia, about 7 km east of today's New Mesolakkias). From the description of the Gousiou (p. 27) It is concluded that the Drakopetres were somewhere close to today's New Mesolakkia.

(2) Abbott, as yposimeiwnei, named ' Hero …», refers to the version history of Alexander of Makedonos: Life, Wars and Death. ', Athens, (J). Nicolaides, 1898. Stresses also that the tale of Fylladas has the principle of the "Pseydokallistheni" who first appeared in Egypt in the 2nd century b.c.. and exposes an extensive summary of the text.

(3) The thrylloi for the Megalexandro continue and in younger years: They said earlier that, as zeygarizan fields in the Moyggila BARROW (between Xylotroy and Fytokioy), the plow skalwne in jars and in large stone slabs. And the popular imagination did its "diagnosis" or that old village (Xylotro) they were in Moyggila or that there is the tomb of Alexander the great!
And to …argument's sake: "Within the torrent of Terpni, among the passages in Xylotroy (sic) and Fytokioy …in the energitheisas there in summer 1950 skafikas under the … YSSYEM, ruins of aggeia Tina, of which simantikwteron was erythromorfos Bell crater by means of the 4th century b.c.. (Annals Of Archaeological, Anaskafai …in Macedonia and Thrace …1940-1950, C. I. Makaronas, SLE 648). Please note that the torrent of Terpni "glyfei" Moyggila BARROW located (for those who know the area) among the erstwhile "tsiaϊria" and "siafaria" of the Xylotroy and the Tsiarpis'no River (cheim. Terpni).
I.e., proving once again that the folk tradition has its roots, almost always, in some real fact.
Picture of beautiful erythromorfoy vase and topographic Moyggilas area where found, and as shown in above post, are listed below. | The ancestry of Alexander and the Macedonians


Eleni Michalopoulou, Lawyer


Documentation in the texts of ancient Greek Grammatologias (Herodotus, Thucydides, Plutarch, Arrian, Demosthenes, Polybius, Isocrates).


On this note aytonoitwn. Because, though, Why is becoming more and more common for the obvious, is, Maybe, useful, immersion one-for a while- in these. A recent, the ancestry of Alexander and the Macedonians, my study on the work of major ancient Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides, Plutarch, Arrian, Demosthenes, Isocrates, Polybius) led to the documentation of known, more or less, arguments for the question. Because the semantic value of the name, as Word, It is a more serious affair than,What could assume someone, -particularly when it comes to name history, very-important and erizomeno, like that of Macedonia, worth to throw a careful look at what record historians of antiquity.


Starting from the beginnings of references to the term ' Greeks ' hold that Thucydides, of the greatest historical and political philosophers humanity says that before the Trojan war was not the term ' Greeks ' and that the first time we meet him is in Homer, as a designation of those who battled against Troy, from Fthiotida, under Achilles – ' the first Greeks ' [1]. Homer, continues Thucydides, the ' Greeks ' refer to the same concept referred to the ' Achaeans ', the Argive ', the Danaoi '. In the Homeric epics do not meet, Besides, Neither the term ' Barbarians ', because they had not yet sorted (much more established, as was later) the term ' Greek ' "as oppositional total name"with the ' Barbarians '[2], ends the great Greek historian.

Under the dyismoy of the ancient Greek grammatologias (' Greeks – barbarians '), barbarians were those who were not Greeks. Under the visa, all historical sources at our disposal show that the Macedonians were Greeks and not barbarians. And it would be strange not to have been, as the birthplace of the Greeks, the Fthiotida, It was only a few kilometers south of Macedonia. From Fthiotida naming spread into large RADIUS that included the entire Greek world. It would be indeed inexplicable to spread everywhere except neighboring Imathia and Pieria, that was – however- much closer than,what e.g. Athens.

The chalkeysi of the theory of non-greekness of Macedonians was based on the fact that during the period of prosperity of the Greek world, the Greeks of the Centre, as Alexander Rangavis, differentiated themselves from those who fell in the region (Macedonians, From Epirus), because the latter, because find with other peoples, katetassonto on tier as someone has already emphasized political and social development. The Rangavis further underlines, that the Dorian invasion and the Amphictyony of Delphi contributed to the extension of the name of the Greeks ' of any of the Greek race[3]’.

In the history of the Peloponnesian War, to come back to Thucydides, and especially where described the campaign of Thracians, under the Sitalkis, vs. Macedonia, accurately defined the geographic coordinates of "lower Macedonia … the current Macedonia ", as the calls the historian[4]. As is apparent from the study description, antique maps and geography today, the area is defined as the area around the Pieriki basin, at the mouth of the river Axios, by Pangeo and beyond the Strymon including Pella, Halkidiki, the Bottia (next in Halkidiki) the Eordea (Aridaía), the Almwpia, the Gristwnia (Gyrtwnia), the Mygdwnia, the Anthemoyntas (near Poligiros) and other Greek areas. Interestingly, Thucydides says that the Macedonians are included and Nations ' epanwthen ' as Lygkistai[5] and Elimiwtai[6] which are allied and ' ypikoa '-ypotaktika- the bottom – of now, as the features, Macedonia. In old maps these identified areas north of present-day Himachal Pradesh and b. a.. of magnesia, within Greek territory. To the North of Lygkestias, the Paeonia, (area on the border of Greece with the Republic of Macedonia-within Greek territory), of which, As Thucydides says, Macedonians occupied a narrow strip that follows the Axios and arrives in Pella and the sea. It is notable that the Paeonian – presumably those who haven't had overwhelmed the Macedonians- Arrian mentions them barbarians, together with the Thracians and the Illirians and the Agrianes.[7] The conclusion is that Macedonia Thucydides times, “Alexander price[8] and this son Perdiccas may is come " It was the area that had a focus on Pieria, the Imathia and Halkidiki[9].

  1. 10384203_305572526303338_6335120286265488843_n THE IRODOTOS

A truly decisive testimony, with respect to the national status of the Macedonians as Greek sex, Located in Herodotus and specifically the description of military preparation for the battle of Plataea (479 e.g.), put a definitive end to the Persian ambitions for the conquest of Greece: On the eve of battle, Alexander First, son of Amyntas and king of Macedonia, involuntary ally of Mardonius, as a vassal of the Persians[10], approached, secretly at night, Athenian outposts, and gave to the generals of the Athenians valuable information in relation to the strategic plan of Mardonius. He did this because, as said, “was himself a Greek, and even from old generation and would not want to see Greece enslaved ". Even begged, in case of victory, somehow the Athenians and for his release[11]. This report of Herodotus, by the mouth of Alexander the 1st, great-grandfather of Alexander the great[12], is, undoubtedly, full -dikaniki would say- evidence is at issue, on the origin, i.e., Alexander and the Macedonians.

In the eighth book of the Histories of Herodotus (Heavens) reference is to the kings of Macedonia, since the beginning of the dynasty until said Alexander I '. In accordance with this description, he was the son of Amyntas, son Alketa, whose father was the Aeropos, son of Philip had father Argaios, son of Perdiccas, from Argos, who first occupied the supreme authority in Macedonia.[13]



For the origin of Alexander the most controversial issues of the name issue Plutarch gives clear answer: Apogonos the mythical Hercules through Karan[14], the part of father and Aiakos, through Neoptolemus than that of his mother[15]. The whole debate could be closed here, unless called into question and the origin of Hercules and Aeacus and Neoptolemos. It should however be at a fascinating story of ancient Greek writers to find other, equally clear answers, at the same, on the origin of Alexander, question.

A why names, worth pausing, previously, so parenthetical, to that of Alexander, The etymological origin of which is, when the prevailing opinion, from the verb 'Alec' (repel, remove) and the noun 'man'. Alexander is eminently name akin to leader, as the first attribute of the Head is its ability to deter and eliminate opponents. The -Greek- name of Alexander, but also that of the father, mother's, ancestors, teachers, generals etc., alone are sufficient evidence of the origin of man, Dynasty and the Macedonian people as a whole.

At this point deserves a special reference to the Greek -also- name of Bucephalus, given the horse, as described by Arrian, in that, while I was black, He had on his head a white mark shaped head buff '[16]. Conclusively, the whole nomenclature which is known from historical sources, It is proof that the language of Ancient Macedonia was a Greek, because it would indeed be strange if there were other, different vernacular and for not even the slightest indication about her, even the names (and, Indeed, or in that the horse).


The teachers and nannies Alexander, He tells us the great biographer, were Greek and education that took Greek: Head, administratively, team of educators was Leonidas, kinsman of Olympias and second in order of Lysimachus of Akarnania[17]. The eminently however educator and shaper of exquisite character of Alexander was "the philosophers Aristotle illustriousness and logiotatos”, why Alexander harbored at least at the beginning- special respect and love[18].

... Reading

Alexander, “philologist and naturally studious and filanagnostis ", harbored great love for literature and especially the Iliad, a copy of which, annotated by Aristotle, He was always close to him and "with his sword put under the pillow ".[19] The books that accompany him in the campaign "was his work Filistou, many of the tragedies of Euripides, Sophocles and Aeschylus, and dithyrambs operand and hospitality "[20]. Love the Alexander for Pindar saved, as it known, the life of the poet's descendants by death, as they were excluded from those who were killed or sold as slaves after the destruction of Thebes[21].


His education was based on the Greek ideals of virtue, of knowledge[22], the pride and bravery and for that reason "did not wish nor pleasure, nor wealth, but virtue and glory ... and significant transactions ".For the same reason he wanted the power of "be free from money, opulence and pleasures, but is rich in races, wars and ambitions "[23]. He considered subservient to live in luxury and royal respect the laws and be subject to labors, a period during which all the non-Greek world era, particularly not the Persians and the Eastern peoples, They extolled the strength of the power of money Mrs, immersed in the pleasures, hoarded wealth and, as contemptuously described by Herodotus, their leaders lived immersed in opulence, even during military campaigns.

... Of the twelve

Frequent visits to the Greek oracles[24], but also sacrifices the twelve Olympian underline the ellinoprepeia the man. In Asia founded, says Plutarch, altars Gods, who were respected for centuries and which were offered Greek sacrifices.[25]


The great love of Alexander for physical exercise, sports and military training was a result of Greek culture that it had received. To those who even the urging, while not yet had succeeded his father, take part in the Olympic Games[26] He replied that it certainly did if he had kings for competitors (Alexander was very proud of his royal origin and is absolutely convinced of the divine origin). It is here for the familiar argument, ότι, because the Olympics only involved Greeks, it would not be possible to speak of participation, if Alexander were not Greek[27].


As stated above, the Greeks called barbarians all those who were not Greeks.[28] The ancient world, Consequently, divided by the Greeks into two categories: in Greek and barbarian[29]. Of the events that took place at the beginning of Alexander's reign, Plutarch mentions the wars of the great commander against Barbarian northward and, in contrary, battles against the Greeks[30] -without it can establish, as attempts, that the Macedonians were not Greeks. These battles are listed in the same sense in which we find the description of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides: battles, i.e., to claim hegemony over the Greek, by Athenians and Spartans side. This, does not mean that the Athenians or the Spartans were not Greeks. The same thing happens, by analogy with the Macedonians, who also claimed the hegemony in the Greek area and were equally Greeks, as the Athenians and Spartans.


Alexander. Sidon sarcophagus


In describing the eastward campaign, the first mention we encounter has to do with taking the plunge: In a resolution which took place at the Isthmus, the Greeks decided to campaign against the Persians, Alexander the not anigorefthi their leader[31]. Head of the Greeks would not be, of course, may not be Greek.

(a). The Granikos

The first major victory at Granicus Alexander hastened to make known to the Athenians sending three hundred prisoners shields was registered in the famous epigram "Philip Alexander and the Greeks except the Lacedaemonians from the Barbarians of the Asiana dwell " [32]. It is obvious that if the Macedonians were not Greeks, indication similar epigram would not be conceivable[33].

(b). The Omen in Lycia

After the conquest of Sardis, Halicarnassus and Miletus, Plutarch tells, Alexander hesitated as to the further course of the campaign. And, because, as it known, giving special attention to omens, consider the following fact as a guiding point for the design of the strategy: A source in Lycia, near the city of Xanthi, “changed suddenly watercourse itself, flooded and from the bottom of took bronze plaque with ancient letters which stated that they would stop the domination of the Persians when catalyze Greeks". Encouraged by what Alexander, says Plutarch, immediately took decisions and proceeded victoriously across the coast to Phoenicia and Cilicia[34]. It is obvious that the passage of the narrative, It is proof of the origin of Alexander (and all the army), because, How could Alexander encouraged by the fact that if it did not consider the Greek himself himself (and the army of Greek).

(c). Alexandria

After the conquest of Egypt "evouleto city great and populous Greek Founded surname self katalipein[35]”. The spread of Greek culture was the purpose of Alexander's campaign and this proves, inter alia, the decision establishing this great, Greek, as he wanted Alexander, city. The design and the building of Alexandria described by Plutarch in an exciting way[36].

(d). In the sanctuary of Ammon Zeus

The next episode finds Alexander, after the magnificent and mysterious march of the army in the desert, before the priest of the temple of Zeus Ammon, who, “Ellinisti stuffy proseipein after Whose kindness "oh child ', barbarism of the last phoneme in uttered as sigma, so to say "oh child ', which was interpreted "oh games of Zeus', another point, to augur, the divine origin of Alexander. What would be the point, truth, the kindly salutation in Greek, the priest of Ammon, if Alexander were not Greek?

(e). Gaugamela

To describe the start of the decisive battle of Gaugamela, where finally defeated the army of the Persian king, Plutarch cites testimony Callisthenes, in which, Alexander "he invoked the gods and wished, if indeed born from Zeus, to offer assistance and to Greeks " [37].

And when, αργότερα, Alexander sat on the royal throne of Persia, the Demaratus the Corinthian wept from emotion and said: “How great pleasure deprived the Greeks who died, before they see the throne of Darius be seated Alexander " [38]. How would it be possible to enjoy the Greeks so far as to record, the narration of Plutarch, such a comment, if Alexander was Greek and he?

(f). The spread of Greek

By the time Alexander began to adopt lifestyle elements of the people of Babylon, He had already realized that the blending cultures would facilitate communication and contacts between local people and the army, so as to ensure stability, that could be preserved after his death. For this reason, narrated by Plutarch, he chose and thirty thousand children gave orders to learn Greek[39]. How, truth and why Alexander would undertake such a move, if he was he Greek? The spread of Greek language was a cultural contribution, with self-evident educational value for the peoples of the region. This decision laid the foundation for the formulation and dissemination of the common Greek, which dominated, as known in the Hellenistic world, after the death of Alexander.

(g). For the glory of the Athenians

Towards the end of his biography we find one of the most tactile testimonials, the work of Plutarch, reference to the ellinoprepeia Alexander: After entering the army in India and during the crossing of the river Hydaspes (on the other side of which was lined up the army of King Porus) night by storm, –rapidly shed rainwater-, He had climbed the water level, ruptured the bed and a large amount of water made the land from which Alexander passed and comrades, slippery and cracked. At that moment, Plutarch tells, Alexander heard to exclaim: "Did Athenians, would you believe how great danger is for your glory?”[40] How much greater assurance than that would be needed so ce and the most skeptical observer to be convinced that Alexander was struggling consciously, a Greek who was, for the greatness of Greece, as expressed by the brilliance radiating great metropolitan center that remained at that time to be the city of Athens?



From the work of Arrian, complete and that evidence of Greek origin and ellinoprepeia Alexander and the Macedonians, also retained only some references, since it is impossible to include all in a selective, like this, approach:

Note incidentally, that in the narrative of events, Macedonians, while having the most number references, appear, However, as one of the Greek entities, like all other (: 'horsemen not Macedonians s three hundred, Thessalian horsemen and two hundred, Ilia not hundred and fifty '- Book I, 29).

(a). The Greeks midisantes

After the battle of Granicus, Athenians ambassadors begged Alexander to liberate the Greeks who had campaigned against the Persians and captured. Alexander, though, says Arrian, “considered that it is safe to stop fear the Greeks did not hesitate to campaign against the Greeks, on the side of the barbarians, as long as it would take his campaign against the Persians "[41]. How might fear the wrath of Alexander the Greek midisantes, if Alexander, It was not the same Greek?

(b). To Macedonia and another in Greece

After the battle of Issus, where he was defeated by state and etrapi a stampede Darius and which recounts in detail and vividly Arrian, the Persian king sent a letter to Alexander in which he called for the conclusion of friendship and alliance, and the return of the captive family (mother, sister-in-law and children).

In Alexander's reply letter she asked him to go himself (Darius) to personally ask his family, He made it clear that dominant Asia was, now, Alexander himself and forbade to be addressed as an equal partner. The content of the letter of Alexander, as recorded by Arrian, It begins with an indictment against Darius as follows: "The ancestors of yours comersto Macedonia and another in Greece poorly concocted us nothing proidikimenoi. I do not make yourself ruler of the Greeks and timorisasthai stuffy Persa dievin s the Asiana ... and in spite of your pemfthenton the peace ..., not per ELLIS kateskefasa, dialyein epicheirounton - estratefsa upon thee "[42].

This excerpt of the letter of Alexander's own, as described by Arrian- enough to stop any discussion.

(c). In favor of Greek law-take

By entering the army at Susa, Arrian says that Alexander took the belongings of the Persian king, among them not the bronze busts of Tyrannicides Competent and Aristogeiton (which had taken Xerxes from Greece) and sent them back to Athens, where they were placed in Kerameikos[43]. (It is known that the abolition of tyranny was considered a milestone in the history of Athens and therefore the Tyrannicides etimonto and more of the leading heroes). At another point which also clearly shows that Alexander wanted to avenge the ills suffered by Greece from the Persian campaigns, historian says, just arrived at Pasargadae, set fire to the palace despite the contrary advice of Parmenion, who did not want to believe that Alexander arrived in Asia as the aggressor and occupier. Alexander, But -afigeitai Arrian-he replied that he wanted to punish the Persians, because they attacked Greece, kateskapsan Athens, They burned the sacred and caused many disasters to the Greeks. 'For these law-take[44]’. With what money, does, if Alexander was not, himself, Greek?

(d). The Callisthenes

In the fourth book, Part of the narrative, where Arrian refers to the excesses of Alexander in Persian habits and manners, lists the reasons efthyvoloi the daring philosopher Callisthenes, from Olynthos, Aristotle's pupil, in response to what was said Anaxarchos, for Alexander's claim to worship him, claim which had encouraged sophists and prominent Medes and Persians in the yard. “... The son of Philip, descendant of Hercules and Aiakos, that his ancestors came from Argos in Macedonia, and served as lords of the Macedonians with the law and not by force .... And if you have to think like the barbarians, because we are barbaric land, I, Alexander, I demand from you to remember to Greece, that you did for the sake of the whole campaign, positions to Asia under the domination of the Greeks. Think about when you come back to Greece, perhaps will force the Greeks, 'The eleftherotatous, in proskinysin;? Or will withdraw from the Greeks and the Macedonians will add this infamy? Or, does, will distinguish once and for prices and timasai ellinoprepos while the Greeks, varvarikos, de, from the barbarians "[45]?

The above quote also speaks for itself.

(e). For the freedom of the Greeks

When he sent back to Greece the Macedonians that they could no longer fight age, illness or injury, led by the most accurate companion, in general Craterus, He asked 'lead soldiers back and take over the affairs of Thrace, of Macedonia, Thessaly and safeguard the freedom of the Greeks[46]’.

(f). A Greek in Armozeia

In 'Indian', book where Arrian describes the voyage of Nearchus, from the Indus River to Susa, through the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf, (an exciting tour reading), noteworthy is an excerpt, characteristic of the ubiquity of the Greek element:

After suffering months, the daring exploration continued. "They started again at dawn, They passed a hundred steps and hang out near the River Tr, in an area called Armozeia. There were plenty of everything, except olives. Crews went to xekourasthoun, glad they stopped their sufferings. They remembered the sufferings of the sea, country fish eating, the wilds of which passed, atrocity tribes encountered the, and their own problems. Some scattered and went inside to explore. There they saw someone who was wearing Greek chlamys, He behaved like the Greeks and spoke Greek. The first people saw him put me cry. Both seemed the unexpected, after so many calamities, to face a Greek and hear the Greek language. They asked where it comes from and who he is. He told them that he had left the camp of Alexander, and that the camp and Alexander himself is not far. Clapping and shouting went to Nearchos. She told him everything. The camp abstained five days way from the sea. "[47]


Taxes horns of Ammon

(g). The Macedonians triirarchoi

In the description of the preparations for the crossing, Arrian mentions the name triirarchous, citing the city from which it originated. In connection with the Macedonians[48] The mentioned towns are situated in Pieria region, Imathia, Chalkidiki (Pella, Amphipolis, Orestiada, Eordaia, Pydna, Mieza -notios, to Thessaly- Aigai, Alkomenes, Veroia, Tymfi, Alorida). In a random, like her, Quote Macedonian cities, is, no doubt, Remarkably, not a single one escapes from the geographical map, as she describes Thucydides, placing, as above, Macedonia entirely within Greek territory and even well away from today, northward, borders.


The, admittedly, charaktiristikotero feature Demosthenes was the intensity of his feelings antimakedonikon, which identified and -More than anything else – the political stigma of the man. The insight and political wisdom led Demosthenes, long before his fellow citizens, awareness of the inevitable, finally, prevalence of Macedonians. The nostalgia of the greatness of Athens, which tormented the orator -flogero patriot in a recession time, laxity and indifference for the common- and his attachment to the ideal of freedom and democracy, highlighted that the political man, as the greatest opponent of Philip, politics whose dievlepe the final end of the Athenian hegemony and the greatest threat to democracy. The above erased reliefs related to the rhetorical question of the reasons Olynthians -three and four against Philip. In the third in Philip, though, the outbreak of passion against the Macedonian king, leads to designations Demosthenes words[49] used as construction theories based on non-Greekness of the Macedonian dynasty.

The study of all the words of Demosthenes, Nevertheless, It does not leave any doubt that the above is rhetorical outburst passion, which has no relation to the historical truth. Σεno other speech there is not any references, as it is obvious to all that the orator sees Philip foreignness not as enemy, but as an opponent of Athens, in the way that was, oldest, rival Sparta (before and after the end of the Peloponnesian War). It is historically proven that similar diversions served, generally, promote implied strictly partisan purposes, in a troubled, political and declining Athens. Remarkably, that the ratings assigned by Demosthenes not to the people of Macedonia, but only to Philip. It is significant that his passion was such Demosthenes, so do not hesitate to call the Athenians in partnership with them even the Persians against Philip[50], at a time when the Isocrates, the great teacher of rhetoric, looked to the kings of Macedonia calling for nationwide enlisting, under their leadership, against the Persians - which took place and, finally, under Alexander.


(a). S the Asiana the war exenegkein

In a letter, which was written shortly after the Battle of Chaeronea[51], Isocrates urges strongly Philip: “… reconciliations to Athens to Sparta, Thebes and Argos and bring harmony to the Greeks[52]... To put an end to the madness and greed that characterize the relations between them and transfer the conduct of the war in Asia”. From this letter it appears that a large section of public opinion in Athens was pushing for the promotion of the idea of ​​the campaign against the Persians under Philip because Isocrates writes " achievement could be nicer, more useful for the Greeks and more suitable for historical times " [53]. And below: Be sure that you will acquire unsurpassed glory and worthy of your achievements when you coerce barbarians ... be slaves of the Greeks and liabilities when the king who now call him big to do,what the rules you. Then it'll remaining nothing else than to become god " [54].

Would not be, certainly possible to speak of war of the Greeks against the barbarians Isocrates-the foremost teacher of rhetoric and the leading proponent of the moral grandeur of the Athenian polity- if Philip was not Greek and Macedonia was not that an integral part of Greece[55].

(b). Athens protector of the ancestors of the Macedonian kings

Worth special mention is the fact, that extolling the greatness of Athens, Isocrates indicates that the city has always been the protector of all Greek. For this fact back in before the Trojan war times, because, writes, “both from old to be digging up the evidence of those who want to defend their homeland[56] (This, parenthetikos, to answer those who disdain History, when it comes to refute the unfounded allegations). In this we trace, the great orator and teacher describes, how the descendants of Hercules (and ancestors of the Macedonian kings), persecuted by the Peloponnesians led by Eurystheus "they saw Athens as the only one capable to repay the services that their father had offered to all people". Our ancestors, continues Isocrates, They marched against them, They defeated and put an end to this insult[57]: hence the special respect that the Macedonian kings and, especially, Alexander always harbored for Athens.


(a). Nationals Asiana He created per ELLIS

In the ninth book of the Histories of Polybius refers, inter alia, the alliance of the Aetolians with the Romans against Philip V of Macedon, Achaean, of Acarnanians and their allies (210 e.g.). Speaking before the meeting of the Spartans, the representative of the public Acarnanians Hops, trying to prevent the Spartans from being an alliance with the Aetolians and the Romans against the Macedonians and Achaeans: In Aitolian Chlenaia, who had previously spoken in favor of the alliance of the Spartans with the enemies of Philip, says: Alexander who punished the Thebans, because he believed that wronged, strictly accused. But the fact that he took revenge on the Persians for the insult that made all Greeks, not to mention, nor that he acquitted of all common and major calamities, enslaving the barbarians and denying them the means with which to destroy Greece ... and finally subjugated (Alexander) Asia to the Greeks " [58]. In the same speech Polybius writes that Lycia wondered : “… what and how much value they deserve Macedonians, who most of the time of their lives never stop fighting against the barbarians for the safety of the Greeks? That always Greece would face big risks, if we had a stronghold for the Macedonians and the pride of their kings, Who does not know the? …”

(b). To Macedonian Achaean and same-sex ...

In the same speech the Lycian complements addressing the Spartans: "Then we are fighting zealously for hegemony and glory against your gay, Achaeans and Macedonians ... But now the issue is the enslavement of the Greeks in foreignness (i.e.. the Romans)[59].

Repeated reference to same-sex Macedonians -in par with their Achaeans- and as opposed to other races, It states clearly on the nationality of the first.


The walkthrough in Macedonia and Alexander filled unexpectedly with a finding in the best seller of the Afghan – American author Khaled Hosseini called 'One Thousand Splendid Suns'. Apart from the references to the Afghan daily life (before the invasion of Russia) which refer to habits such as red eggs, dishes with yogurt and cucumber, competitions kites (like those who were formerly in the Greek province) and other related, the heroine explain that people must respect and apply scrupulously the law (eminently Greek moral and political authority, the base and the mainstay of Athenian democracy). And as often in the text, the author cites the Afghan word: qanoon[60]: 'Kanon', apparently (and we have here a collateral proof of the long funeral procession of long vowels like omega). It would have, Maybe, interest to a comparative linguistic study between the Greek and the languages ​​of countries where the army of Alexander passed, which spread the language and culture of Greece in the depths of Asia. 'To the glory of the Athenians', as stated by Plutarch ...


The above are only some of the elements in the narrative of Herodotus, Thucydides, Plutarch, Arrian, Polybius, but also in the writings of Demosthenes and Isocrates, speaking, implicitly or explicitly, the origin of Alexander the Great. The value of historical truth, as recorded in projects like these, is, for nations that have a long tradition, sacrosanct. For startup today, though, countries, which are in a search for identity and trying to build entity against History, the value of truth is relative and changing. For the latter cases, historical figures such as the above ancient Greek writers, reserve, from the depths of centuries, verdicts irrevocable convictions in the minds of all those who know and insist to remember.

[1] The Greek was the son of Deucalion. (Sons of Greek was Ion, Aeolus, Doros and Xouthos).

[2] Thucydides Histories, Book I, III "... nor non barbarians eirike by the Greek nor say opponents in Cpd onama apokekristhai."

[3] Alexander P. Ragavis, 'Dictionary of Greek Archaeology', Volume A, word 'Greece'.

[4] Thucydides Histories, Book II, 99.

[5] The Greek site today, west of Imathia.

[6] Notios Kastoria (Elimaia lake)

[7] 'Alexander's Anabasis' Arrian, Book II, 7, SLE. 148 'The Greek' Publications 'Hatzopoulos'

[8] "The ancestors of which were 'the Timenidai in an ancient Odeon on Argos' Thucydides XCIX.

[9] The data of historical sources recorded in detail in the "Dictionary of Greek Archaeology 'Alexander P. Ragavi under the heading 'Macedonia'.

[10] Amyntas had allegiances during the campaign of Darius Hystaspes. Allies of the Persians were the Boeotians midisantes, Argos and Thessaly.

[11] «…he te gar Greek genus am torchaion, and instead freely dedoulomenin qua if etheloimi Oran to Greece. " Herodotus, Book TH'- Calliope, ch. 44 – 45, SLE. 174 – 176, 'Ancient Writers', Zitros Publications.

[12] Alexander the First was his father Amyntas B ', whose sons were Alexander II, and Philip, father of Alexander the Great.

[13] Herodotus, History 8, Heavens 139, Publications Chatzopoulos 'The Greek'.

[14] The Karanos, from Argos, descendant of Hercules, conquered city near Edessa, in which he gave the name 'Aigai' and there founded the Macedonian dynasty. In this line and Arrian.

[15] Chapter 2. subparagraph 2. References without identifying the source, in this chapter, relating to the work of Plutarch's "Lives , Alexander - Caesar "by the Publications Ancient Greek Secretariat 'Greeks' Ulysses Chatzopoulos.

[16] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandrou, Book V 19, Publishing 'The Greek' Ulysses Chatzopoulos.

[17] Ch. 5, v. 7,8. The Lysimachus likened Alexander Achilles, Philip with Peleus and herself with Phoenix, teacher of Achilles.

[18] Ch. 8, v. 4: 'Aristotelin not wondering in the beginning and loves uh less of Father, as by the one true living, Wherefore not live well '.

[19] Ch. 8, v. 2.

[20] Ch. 8, v. 3.

[21] Ch. 11, v. 12.

[22] And even scientific - Alexander had special inclination to medicine (Ch. 8).

[23] Ch. 5, v. 6.

[24] Ch. 14, v. 6.

[25] Ch. 62. v. 8.

[26] It was okypous.

[27] Prices comprehensible only to Greeks attributed, Olympians, already the great-grandfather of Alexander, Alexander I '.

[28] The etymology of the word 'barbarian' states the unintelligible, linguistically, and foreigners (repeat the sound 'w' which means nothing in Greek).

[29]'Thucydides Histories' Book A' III p. 62 , Govostis Publications.

[30] Ch. 9, ed..3.

[31] Ch. 14.2

[32]Ch. 16 v. 18

[33] That was the way pension epigrams (: e.g.. "Pausanias Kleombrotos, Lacedaemonian, liberate Greece from the Medes after the Greek ethelisanton xynarasthai the danger of battle ". Alexander even did not add the term 'Macedonian, as Pausanias the word 'Spartan').

[34] Ch 17. v. 4-5

[35]Ch. 26. v. 4 – 14.

[36] Ch. 26 v. 4-14.

[37] Ch. 33 v. 2.

[38]Ch. 37 v. 7.

[39] Ch. 47 v. 6.

[40] Ch. 60 v. 6. 'Oh Athenians, hence ce pistefsait 'if age endure risks due to even unto Eudoxia?

[41] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandrou, Book I, 29 Publishing 'The Greek' Ulysses Chatzopoulos.

[42] Arrian , Alexandrou Anabasis Book II, 14.

[43] Arrian , Alexandrou Anabasis Book III, 16.

[44] Arrian , Anabasis Alexandrou, Book III, 18.

[45] Anabasis Alexandrou, Arrian Book IV, 11.

[46] Anabasis Alexandrou, Arrian Book VII, 12.

[47] Anabasis Alexandrou, Arrian Indian 32.

[48]There is also the corresponding quote for triirarchous coming from cities of the rest of Greece.

[49] '... Not only Greek is, but not even a barbarian hailing from a good place, but he is a pernicious Macedonian, remote, where previously you could not even buy a decent slave. ' Demosthenes, 'At Philip III 31 'Greeks' , Publications 'Cactus'. Demosthenes accused and his fellow citizens as barbarians, concluding that did not respect the values, the principles and ideals of Greece.

[50] Demosthenes, 'At Philip III 51 'Greeks' , Publications 'Cactus'

[51] 338 e.g..

[52] ... In concord katastisai the Greeks ... and the Asiana s the war exenegkein.

'To Philip (III)’ 2 Isocrates, Ancient Authors, Zitros Publications

[53]or potassium ut projects 'ofelimoteron per Ellisin OUT' in time rather prachthisomenon.

To Philip (III 3 Isocrates, Ancient Authors, Zitros Publications

[54]Igou not Toth 'exein insurmountable her and thee an activity value terms, when the true barbarians forced eilotefein per Ellisin gar ... None So ESTA yet except god happen. The same.

[55] The idea elaborates on Isocrates 'Panegyricus', published long before the abovementioned letter (380 e.g.).

[56] let alone before the Trojan, – thence gar righteous Tash loyalties entitled to a payment in favor of the fathers disputed ... 'Festive', Isocrates, 54, 'Greeks', 113 Chatzopoulos Publications

[57] 'Festive', Isocrates 56-57-58 'The Greek' Publications Chatzopoulos

[58] '... He created the nationals Asiana per ELLIS' Polybius, Histories IX 34.3 "The Greeks' Publications' Cactus'

[59] 'then hand gar favor hegemony and glory efilotimeisthe to Achaeans and Macedonians gay... Now not about slavery objecting to war per ELLIS foreignness' Polybius Histories IX 37, The Greeks

55 Κhaled Hosseini ‘Α Thousand Splendid Suns’, Riverhead Books, New York 2007 SLE. 284. | Let's not stay in words archaeologists haven't even visited the Hill Kasta…..

Let's not stay in words archaeologists haven't even visited the Hill Kasta…..

Controversy of archaeologists ,as always ,for Ifaistiwna and Mega Alexander
The inscription on his tomb precinct in Amphipolis provokes recriminations. What supports the Group of responsible archaeologist, Κατερίνας Περιστέρη. Who and why they reject the theory of. At what stage are the investigations with the bones of five skeletons;

Intense questioning about the chronological period and whether it is indeed new details of inscriptions on marble funerary monument yard on the hill which Kasta presented in scientific speech / presentation of the responsible archaeologist, Katerina Peristeri but and part research group, on Wednesday night at the Aristotle University, Express Classic Archaeologists, but the Assistant Professor of prehistoric archaeology and Osteoarchaiologias, in the Department of history and Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Sevi Triantaphyllou.
Most speak of fuzzy information, arbitrary archaeological approaches that may not refer to the Hellenistic period, but for inscription in marble of the grave yard, which is located 2 km. away from the Tomb, which should not be confused with the occupant or with what “Secrets” hides the grandiose Tomb.
“Discard the theories on Ifaistiwna”, answered unequivocally in what became known on Wednesday afternoon, Professor of Classical Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the who on 36 years he served on excavations at Vergina, Panos Faklaris. “Still looking to find out what the news”, fills the head of the Panel of bone found within the Tomb, Sevi Triantaphyllou.

What answers yet from the side of, the responsible architect Michalis Lefantzis Memorial;

What the new discoveries that turned again the interest of the scientific community in Amphipolis which “We had forgotten”;

Recent discoveries relate mainly to clarify the time era in which reportedly owns the great archaeological discovery of the tomb and which, like clarifies
in the NEWS 247 the responsible architect Michalis Lefantzis Memorial at Restoration ancient monuments in Athens, is undoubtedly the Hellenistic era and not the Roman.

“The important thing is that. That the monument is not Roman, as initially rushed many archaeologists to identify prior months. The opportunity to come to this conclusion is the inscription found in the grounds of the Tomb, in marble pieces and now undoubtedly, refer to the 4th century BC. X. and the Antigonid dynasty. This is certainly one of the many funerary war memorials of Ifaistiwna, as there are many more throughout the country, especially in Macedonia, Alexandria and Cheronia”.

The great discoveries (particular architectural type) they are known to excavators here and a few months, reveal that the tomb of Amphipolis was built by the Deinokrati or the Stisikrati after ordering and financing of Alexander the great, for his friend and trusted Officer, Ifaistiwna, After his death, While implemented by Antigonos the One-eyed, the first quarter of the 4th BC. century.

At the same time, the research team reported in Monogram – seal of the Macedonian Officer. The inscription “PARELABON IFAISTIWNOS” found in at least two building slabs, While in another marble fragment is the inscription “ANT”.
As ANT, According to the new cases, they signed all members of the Antigonid dynasty. The inscription is perhaps the “building a written contract” on receipt of the marble material destined for the ambitious project, probably Memorial.

“For many years the architectural parts was in public view, next to the lion.
But no one noticed the unnoticeable inscription on marble surface”, reported by Mr. Lefantzis and continued: “The word Parelabon is written in such a way, so that the-a and-a reference to Hellenistic era. If referred for example, in the era of Perseus, the letters would be different, According to the basic principles of epigraphy”.

As far as the lion lying in 2 km away from the tomb of the mound, This dates back to the 1936 e.g.. and “similar we can meet and Leo in Ekbatana, the area that the trusty Officer of Alexander the great, Hephaestion died 325 e.g.. So for this reason, actually, from the very first moment the belief that we will be confronted with finds from the Hellenistic period.
The lion like all marble pieces to close the Tomb, they moved there. And were a harbinger for the dead or dead and the significance of archaeological discovery. Were not there than ever. Dating and documenting findings both inside the Tomb (Sphinxes, Caryatids, mosaic floor) they resemble works of the same period kept in museums within and outside the country, as the monogram of Alexander in the second Chamber, but the oktafylloi relief rosettes”.

During the presentation of Ms. Peristeri, was also known to the tumulus has undergone numerous looting until the time of the last Macedonian, While stressed the existence of a cult space within Memorial. Also, revealed that coins were found burnt or damaged, which probably belong to the Mega or Alexander cassander.

When Mr. Lefantzi, like Mrs Peristeri, There is no longer any room for questioning that the monument of Amphipolis is the Hellenistic era. “Let's wait well those reacting”, says Mr. Lefantzis and ends:”Was a first scientific communication, I don't know when we'll have photos and documents, or when you know more info. Let's wait for the archaeological fermentation and let's not stay in words archaeologists haven't even visited the Hill Kasta”.

The documents that show Ifaistiwna
The first and most important key element are the three signs, found in as many "orphan" marble architectural members, of the approximately 500, many of whom reportedly originate from the precincts of mound Kasta, but found the first decades of the last century in a distance 5-6 km beside the River near the current location of the lion of Amphipolis.

THE M. Lefantzis said us going for three identical inscriptions, While in her speech, Ms. Peristeri spoke of two identical and one third for which yielded no evidence, letting semicolon.

The word "…ARELABON "-missing" p "- and at the end of "n" is the monogram of Ifaistiwna. It is wrong what was written that the inscription says "PARELABAN IFAISTIWNOS" IRWON. The word "IRWON» no. THE M. Lefantzis explained that "distinguished very clearly in the, f, z, the CENTURY. Because it is large in size, we consider refers to Memorial». In her speech, Ms. Peristeri stated that ' this was a contract receipt "and the inscription is interpreted as" parelabon of Ifaistionos "heroon.

Wanting to strengthen this assessment, He did mention the "Parallel Lives" of Plutarch, stating that "when Alexander missed Ifaistiwna, asked by Deinokrati (Stisikrati) to erect brilliant war memorials throughout ". "It may have been 5-6 or even more. We don't know how many, but certainly it was two in Alexandria, and one in Ekbatana, where Hephaestion died. For we do not have a mention of Amphipolis in the Secretariat ", He m. Lefantzis.

The approximately 500 ' orphan ' architectural elements were transferred and located around the lion of Amphipolis by the 1937 When and restored the monument.

The second key element is the monogram of Ifaistiwna, They also found inside, in rosettes from the epistyle of the second area. MS. Peristeri spoke a enniafyllo rosette with Monogram, ο Μ. Lefantzis however tells us that "found at least two rosettes, who is painted with Encaustic method and hacked. The monogram is engraved in white portion in the center of the rosette. The rosettes they found before 1,5 month and is the first rosettes from the South side of epistylioy, While we don't know if there are other, as they are in bad shape '.

The third key element is the development of ANT, over more than three points to close, found in previous years and in accordance with the excavators referring to the Antigonid dynasty. MS. Peristeri stated that "this is a typical Monogram that exists throughout the period the Antigonid and proves the dating of the monument in the last quarter of the 4th BC. century». The digger was cautious on who from the family of Antigonidon received the project, "probably Antigonus one-eyed or another Member of the family ', said.

However the m. Lefantzis are categorical. "The Memorial has received general m. Alexandrou, Antigonus the one-eyed (382-301 e.g.). Couldn't be Antigonus Gonatas (319-239 e.g.), because this case will throw the dating of the monument. Antigonus the one-eyed and the Deinokratis had a common purpose, to continue the vision of Alexander the great, the first in politics and the second in architecture ", told us.

THE M. Lefantzis revealed in ' Nation ' that marble architectural fragments found near the tumulus Kasta originate from the Lion of Amphipolis and is from the frescoes of the podium. On the podium of Leo was no frieze with Macedonian iconography and issue a cortege. "These pieces are being studied now and will be the subject of a subsequent announcement», We said and, to a question regarding us the frieze, After he clarified that does not fall in his specialty, estimated is of the late classical or early Hellenistic period.

The "message of duplicating other broadcasting the findings, the relationship between Alexander and Ifaistiwna IE ' preoccupied particularly Ms. Peristeri. The yielded on two Sphinxes, the two Caryatids, the two horses in the expression of Peristeri. THE M. Lefantzis does not endorse this view. "I'm not sure we should do this interface. I didn't adopt», He said features.

Horseback warrior in third Chamber

Impressive colors and performances is the frieze was revealed in the third of the four- site of the monument, where there is a pebbled floor with the abduction of Persephone. In her speech, Ms. Peristeri said the illustration includes the hero who is on horseback with a lion's head and a helmet Warrior, either in battle or in Cha riot race with his arms (quiver and thorax), He noted, however, that "many pieces of it is unreadable".

THE M. Lefantzis, who is he who read and did the representation of frieze, revealed to us that the form of the hero, both coverall, and portraiture, repeated several times. He insisted that the study of the person and of clothes of "there is no case to be Roman Warrior, It's definitely one great man ".

From the West side of the frieze begins the presentation of his life, his accomplishments, the military successes. After afirwismenos appears, without wetsuit, with the reinforcement of the legs, While two Centaurs are a bull before the sacrifice. Follow the dinghy with a winged Victory helmsman at the stern and the bow, and in the Middle a Delphic tripod, the dead man's trophy that symbolizes the glory and the myth of.

There are also the rotors are forms of sleep and death, but a procession of horsemen who accompany the dead.

The frieze has not dated, yet archaeologists have pointed out in the "nation" that don't exist in the Macedonian era friezes repetitions of the same person. "This is the latest illustration», They said features.

Ki'omws …Reject the theories concerning Alexander the great

“Lost in translation” Ms. Peristeri, declare several archaeologists, After the guided scientific revelations that make the lap of the world.

“We must reject the scripts on Ifaistiwna and Alexander the great. And this had support from scratch, at 13 August, date of retrieval of mound. There is no element that leads us to such conclusions. Also, the inscriptions referred to Ms. team Peristeri, located in Leo, i.e. 2 km. away from the grave and therefore, have nothing to do with him. The lion is from another grave, who has not found yet”, stating unequivocally in the NEWS 247 Professor of Classical Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the who on 36 years he served on excavations at Vergina, Panos Faklaris.

Commenting on the “PARELABON” of the inscription, He mentions: “Has other letters next. The inscription does not stop in this word. And I find it later from the Tomb, Maybe by Thracians who made raids in the region. Clearly, the findings of Ms. Peristeri is very important. But so far information, is the unqualified. This is a Macedonian tomb and not a monument to honor someone. And the inscription on the lion should be aposyschetistei from the Tomb”.

He speaks even confused as to the date on which it should be placed in finding. “It's not the end of the 4th century, but at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. CH.”, While rejecting the scenarios on Antigen. “When you created the tumulus, Antigonus was killed, so nothing from recent data has no basis”.

From the side of, the head of the Panel of bone found about nine months within the mound Sevi Triantaphyllou, reports that “I don't know why is chatting today. You'll find members from the area of Classical Archaeology, to understand”.

Professor of Archaeology at the Aristotle University Chryssa Paliadeli, speaking to tv show, featured “interesting proposal” the announcement by the head of the archaeological research, namely that the tumulus was probably meant for Kasta Ifaistiwna by order of Alexander the great and stressed: “We could safely say that the monument dates to the end of the 4th BC. century or in the early Hellenistic period, but it takes a lot of work yet to draw conclusions. For years will discuss the proposals and will be given further material” noted archaeologist.

Bones testify to the occupant of the Tomb;

The head of the Panel of bone found about nine months within the mound (along with Assistant Professor x. Papagerogopoulou) and Assistant Professor in the Department of history and archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. specializing in osteoarchaiologia, Sevi Triantaphyllou notes in the NEWS 247 ότι: “What is my field and I can say with certainty is that investigations of the bones were frozen for financial reasons. WHAT, What I had to learn, posted in January. The age and sex of each of the five skeletons were found within the monument. Our research was normally three, but unfortunately, due to the crisis we did not conclude. Aim remains the affinity of five people”.

But she made it clear that: “The bones will not ever testify for themselves the occupant of the Tomb. The DNA cannot give such information. And what people need to understand” | The conspiracy of Darius

Βρισκόμαστε στα 522 e.g.. The biggest Empire the world shocked by a dynastic crisis which has all the features history detective mystery. The rightful King is to campaign in Egypt, and conquer. Always been despotic, but it seems now it sinks into madness as murdering members of their family, including his brother, for whom, perhaps not unfairly, maintains suspicion that questioning the Royal throne.
On the way back, the King receives a Messenger who informs him that in Persia the authority has undertaken a usurper who presented as brother of King. Shortly after the Prince is injured in the leg under unclear circumstances and soon dies from trauma. A group of Persian nobles conspire to overthrow the usurper. The designs of the conspirators succeed and the Royal power leads to the man who will bring the Persian Empire at the height of its glory.

Let's see how they present the story the various sources available, before we try to explain the narratives they, the inconsistencies and contradictions between them, and, then, to identify any elements of historical reality can contain or ... hide.

(J). The sources

As the greatest achaimenidologos of our time, Pierre Briand [«Histoire de l'Empire Perse (De Cyrus à Alexandre)«, Fayard, Paris, 1996, SLE. 109], the historian attempting to clarify the dynastic crisis of 522 depends almost entirely from the Greek sources of the classical antiquity, in particular by Herodotus.

(J). (A). The Greek sources

(a). Herodotus's version: The historian from Halicarnassus presents the Persian King Kambysi as a mentally disordered person. The insanity of having manifests itself as the first victim of the sibling brother, the Smerdi. The rage of the ruler against his brother has, According to Herodotus, dual cause: Firstly, the insult to the person of the King, When his brother is the only one of the Persians who tries and manages to bend the bow to bring gift to Kambysi the ruler of Ethiopia. Secondly, that Cambyses sees in dream brother sits in the Royal throne. These reasons are enough to his order of, the Prixaspi, to assassinate Smerdi:
"Cambyses tree, as legoysi AIgyptioi, dia aytika τὸ ἀdikima Helene emani, ewn oyde erstwhile frenzied. and first men of kakwn exergasato the ἀdelfeon Smerdin eonta patros mitros and of a, the ἀpepempse es fthonw ἐξ AIgyptoy Persas, ὅτι τὸ mounos Persewn Te toxon oson daktyloys of two eIryse, τὸ AIthiopos ineikan founded of the Ichthyofagoi, τῶν ἄllwn Persewn he oydeis Te egeneto oIos. ἀpoichomenoy es Smerdios wn Persas of opsin eIde ἐν ypnw of Cambyses in toiinde· edoxe the ἄggelon elthonta Persewn ἀggellein ἐκ as in thronw in basiliiw in Izomenos oyranou kefali on Smerdis of psayseie. respect of these deisas ewytou wn non-min ἀpokteinas ὁ ἀdelfeos ἄrchi, refer Prixaspea es Persas, os in these ἀnir loyal Persewn, ἀpokteneonta min. • He ἀnabas es ἀpekteine Smerdin Sousa, oI legoysi men ἄgrin ep᾽ exagagonta, oI he es the proagagonta sea katapontwsai ' Erythrin (Herodotus, Book Iii Thalia, 30, 1-3).

The Halicarnassus lists then all crimes committed within the paranoia of Cambyses: kills sister and wife, which indeed pose. Burying alive a dozen young noble Persians. Tormenting the former King of Lydia, the Croesus. In the same context and the gruesome execution of Royal judge Sisamni, the Cambyses, judging him guilty of deception, order to shreds and with his skin to dress the throne on which it sits the new Royal judge (the Otanis, son of slain), so as to be doubly careful when issuing its decisions.

While, though, the Cambyses remains in Egypt, two brothers who are Magicians, i.e. the caste of Iranian priests, take advantage of the fact that the murder of his brother King had kept secret. One of them, the Patizeithis staged in the Royal throne his brother who bore the same name as the murdered brother Kambysi and seemed very! New arrive and in the camp of Kambysi, on his return from Egypt, While he is in Syria.
"He Kambysi Cyrus chronizonti AIgypton in and around parafronisanti epanisteatai ἄndres Magicians two ἀdelfeoi, of the eteron kataleloipee of oIkiwn meledwnon of Cambyses. oytos di wn the epanesti mathwn Te Smerdios in mortem as kryptoito genomenos, and as eIisan epistamenoi by oligoi ayton Persewn, Oi polloi he perieonta min eIdeiisan. Respect these boyleysas one epecheirise toisi basiliioisi. in the ἀdelfeos, the eIpa by synepanastinai, oIkws τὸ Smerdi in eIdos even Kirou, the ewytou ἀdelfeon of Cambyses eonta ἀpekteine· in te omoios in Smerdi di eIdos and di and oynoma twyto had Smerdin. Touton the Magician Patizeithis ἄndra ἀnagnwsas ws of the aytos always diaprixei, eIse ἄgwn es the basiliion thronon. He poiisas Helene preacher on Te ἄlli diepempe and AIgypton proereonta di es and priest in stratw as Smerdios of the loipou ἀkoystea Cyrus ἀll᾽ eIi Kambysew worst.

OI Te di wn ἄlloi proigoreyon these preachers and di and ep᾽ tachtheis of AIgypton, eyriske gar Kambysea and the straton eonta ἐν Ἀgbatanoisi Syriis .........., stas proigoreye es Middle home entetalmena ἐκ of Sorcerer ' (Herodotus, Thalia, 61-62).

Initially, the Achaimenidis occupied by remorse, because he realizes he probably unfairly had executed his brother, a and others eventually was the usurper. Then, the logic prevails and Cambyses decides to return as soon as possible in Susa to face the usurper. As, though, coming up on his horse, his sword leaving casing and seriously injures leg.

"Enthauta ἀkoysanta Kambysea Smerdios etypse the oynoma the ἀlitheii of Te reasons and of enypnioy· os edokee in ypnw ἀpaggeilai to speak in these as Smerdis es basiliion thronon Izomenos the psayseie on the oyranou kefali. He Mathwn as vain ἀpolwlekws the eIi ἀdelfeon, ἀpeklaie Smerdin· He ἀpoklaysas and periimektisas on ἁpasi symfori ἀnathrwskei of the Ippon, ἐν echwn now the tachistin es strateyesthai Sousa of the Magon. And the ἀnathrwskonti of the koleou of the Ippon xifeos ὁ ἀpopiptei Miki, He gymnwthen the sword the paiei miron ... in he ekechristo Boytous eti erstwhile ἐκ polios ἐν Ἀgbatanoisi teleytisein the bion. men di toisi ḟ ἐν Midikoisi Ἀgbatanoisi edokee teleytisein hoary, ἐν toisi in these home always prigmata· τὸ christirion ἐν toisi he Syrii Ἀgbatanoisi elege ἐν fonts. And as di epeiromenos epytheto .......... then polios τὸ oynoma, its on the symforis of Te ἐκ of Magician and ekpepligmenos of trwmatos eswfronise, He syllabwn τὸ theopropion eIpe "enthauta Kambysea Cyrus peprwmenon teleytan the esti"» (64).

The Cambyses realizes that probably the end of approaching. Invites the nobles and reveals the truth. The murder of his brother, the reasons why the decided, the usurpation of power by the Sorcerer (65). However, Persian nobles of Kambysi sequence doesn't seem to believe the conspiracy Magi and rather believe that usurper is his brother King. Attach the words of Kambysi in hate he had for his brother and believe that its purpose is to make all the Persians to switch against the second and not let him on the throne of Achaemenides. A few days later, the gangrene caused by the trauma gets the Kambysi in the world of the dead.

"he these meta as esfakelise te the osteon and miros esapi of rapidly, ἀpineike Kambysea the Cyrus, basileysanta men home always epta etea and five minas, He ἄpaida τὸ ersenos eonta parapan and brood female. Persewn he pareousi ἀpistii toisi toys ypekechyto polli Magicians echein home prigmata, ἀll᾽ of eIpein Kambysea ipisteato diaboli home of the death Smerdios eIpe, These ekpolemwthi Ina πᾶν τὸ Persikon» (66, 2-3).

For seven months the usurper reign undisturbed. Even filolaϊka takes steps to consolidate his power (three-year tax relief). Then, Herodotus displays the Otani, one of the eygenesteroys Persians, suspecting fraud of pseudo-Smerdios. He asks his daughter, the Faidymi, which was Kambysi's wife and now this that appears as Smerdis. She replies that she has never seen the Smerdi in person. The Otanis tells her to ask the Atossa except Consort is and sister of Kambysi and Smerdios. She will know well whether it is her brother or someone usurper. The Faidymi responds that they cannot see the Atossa, a and are on different partitions and the King does not allow a Royal wife to see the other (68). The Otanis begins to ensure that impersonation. Knowing that Cambyses had punish the magician Smerdi for some misconduct by cutting of the ears ("he said the Sorcerer of Smerdios ἄrchwn of Kambysew Kuros home wta ἀpetame ep᾽ aItii tini smikri worst municipalities»), asks his daughter to finds the same if the "King" have ears or not. When the Faidymi gives the expected negative answer, the Otanis puts in place his plan. Calls on two other noble, the Aspathini and the Gobrya and decide to kill the magician usurper. Each conspirator undertakes to find and another accomplice (the Otanis shall associate itself with the Intaferni, the Gobryas and Aspathinis Megabyzo him the Hydarnes). Susa is displayed and another great Persian Aristocrat, Darius, whom else render immediately participant in their design.

«events he said ex es paraginetai Dareios Sousa Ystaspeos's of Persewn by ikwn· having these in di gar • patir yparchos. epei wn oytos ἀpiketo, ex toisi of Persewn edoxe and Dareion prosetairisasthai» (70).

Darius takes a leading role in conspiracy. While the Otanis proposes to delay the implementation of the plan until you were implementing the plan up to ensure their success, Darius proposes to act immediately, view required (76). Indeed, Darius and Gobryas invade the Royal apartments of the Palace in Susa and the first kills the Sorcerer usurper, While the second has previously immobilise (78).

Then, the conspirators talked about what to do regarding the governance of the Empire. Herodotus shows to express political views most Greek. The Otanis supports a form of democracy, as he talks about "equality" with the ancient Greek meaning of the word (i.e.. the equal participation of citizens in the offices and responsibilities of governance) (80), the Megabyzos speaks as a supporter of the oligarchy (81), While Darius supports maintaining the institution of kingship (82). As expected, Darius's view prevails, and it remains to be decided how you select the new King among seven. The way he is ... ippomanteia: King will become the one who the next dawn his horse will first chlimintrisei (84)! Darius course will beat, Thanks to the fallacy of the ippokomoy, of Oibari (85-87).

"Te di Dareios ὁ Ystaspeos basileys ἀpededekto» (88,1).

In order to legalize more power, Darius marries two daughters of Cyrus, the Atossa, He was a husband and Kambysi and pseudo-Smerdios, and Artystwni, but the Parmy, daughter of Smerdios, his brother Kambysi, and, fysikotata, the daughter of Otani, which revealed the impersonation of the magician, the Faidymi (88, 2).

(b). The remaining ancient Greek sources: Without scope and eloquence of mythistorimatikis story of history from Bodrum, other Greek authors refer to Persian dynastic crisis of 522 or to persons and events about this.

In Cyropaedia, Xenophon doesn't deal with events subsequent death of Cyrus (If we can say that in particular the Athenian moralising textbook deals with events). Commemorates the sibling brother Kambysi as Tanaoxari.

To The Persians, Aeschylus mentions his brother Kambysi, which calls Mardo: "Cyrus he pais ... Fifth he irxen Mardos, patra aIschyni thronoisi t I ἀrchaioisi» (773-775). Reports that reigned and features shame of the dynasty, but no talks about usurpation by a Sorcerer.

Much more extensive reference to facts makes the Rules, the Greek archiatros of the Persian Court in the reign of Artaxerxi Ii (405-359). In Persian, He Ctesias calls Tanyoxarki his brother Kambysi. Cause of loss of Tanyoxarki is, in the Ktisia, the fierce battle with the Sorcerer Sfendadati. The magician the MAL Tanyoxarki in Kambysi, claiming that intends to usurp the kingship. The Cambyses convinced and orders the execution of his brother. After this, the Sfendadatis operates the great Visual resemblance to the Prince and commanding Bactria as satrap for five years. At this point appear in the foreground two eunuchs, the Artasyras and Bagapatis, who put the Sfendadati on Royal throne. A third eunuch, the Izabatis, threatens to reveal the scam. The conspirators heidrek (Persian, 10-13).

Apart from the writers of classical antiquity, There is also the Justin, Roman historian of the 3rd-4th century. a.d. ((J), 9, 4-11). And he says the dream of Kambysi in Egypt, He sees his brother ... Mergi sitting in the Royal throne. The Cambyses relying on a trusted following, the magician Comet, to assassinate Mergi. The Comet performs the assigned mission, but in the meantime dies the Cambyses the magician decides to raise to the throne his brother, the Oropasti, who has great skill, well understood, to ... much like in appearance with the murdered brother Kambysi.

Between the different versions of the story are impressive differences in the name of his brother Kambysi (Smerdis, Tanaoxaris, Tanyoxarkis, Mardos and Mergis), but the usurper (Smerdis, Sfendadatis, Oropastis) or the plotters that the raise to the throne (Patizeithis, Artasyras and Bagopatis, Comet). There Are, though, some fundamental common elements, as notes and the Briand (ibid., SLE. 110-111):

– The murder of his brother Kambysi, by order of King Achaimenidi.

– The replacement of the Prince from a magician.

– The striking similarity in appearance between the Magician and the Prince.

Essential differentiation occurs as to the chronological order of events. According to Herodotus, both the murder of Smerdios and usurpation of the Throne from the magician of the same name occur at the time of Kambysi's campaign in Egypt. By Ctesias, Instead, places the assassination of Prince five years ago the usurpation. When Justin, end, and the murder and misappropriation after the death of Kambysi. Apparently, in circles of the Persian nobility, but among the Greeks in Asia minor and in particular Greece, should, as early as the 5th century, to were various stories about the rise of Darius in power, which rather anemixan or interpreted by Herodotus and the followers of.

(J). (B). The Persian source: the version of Darius

Fortunately, We have at our disposal and a Persian source and indeed the great protagonist, Darius. In deeply cut into the rock monumental inscription of Mpechistoyn, the Persian ruler gives his version onthe how found the throne of Achaemenides.

"Conquer the Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, and he had a sibling brother called Mparntigia. Then the Cambyses killed Mparntigia. The murder he was not known to the people. Later the Cambyses left for Egypt and, then, the people rebelled. After this, the lie dominated in Persia, in Midia and in other peoples. Then it appeared someone, a magician who say Gkaoymata. He rebelled in Paϊsigiaoybanta, near mount Arakantri, the 14th day of the month Bigiaxna. He lied to the people: "I'm the Mparntigia, the son of Cyrus, his brother Kambysi». Then, whole people rose up against the Kambysi and written with the rebel and in Persia and in Midia and in other countries. The wizard usurped the Royal power in the 9th day of the month Gkarmapanta [= 1.3.522]. Then the Cambyses died of natural death ...

Anyone, Persian or Midos ... could not get the Kingdom from the hands of Gkaoymata, of the magician. The people feared him too. He killed many who had known the Mparntigia. This is why the kill: "Do not learn that I am not the Mparntigia, the son of Cyrus '. No one dared say anything to Gkaoymata the magician, until appeared I. ..

With the help of Mazda Achoyra and with few men I killed the magician and his supporters. Killed him in a fortress called Sikagiaoybati, in the area of Nisagia, in Midia. The got the Kingdom and the power of Achoyra Mazda became King ... " (inscription of the Mpechistoyn, 1the column, 10-13).

Behold men who were present when I killed the Gkaoymata, the magician who claimed he was the Mparntigia. Worked with me as a loyal supporters.

The Bintarna,son of Bagiaspara [= Intafernis]

The Oytana, son of Thoykra [= Otanis]

The Gkaoymparoyba, son of Marntoynigia [= Gobryas, father of Mardonioy]

The Bintarna, son of Mpagkampinia [= Hydarnes]

The Mpagkampoyxa, son of Ntatoybachya [= Megabyzos]

The Arntoymanis, son of Bakaoyna " (inscription of the Mpechistoyn, 4the column, 68-69).

Among the detailed storytelling of Herodotus and the Declaration of Darius the great, there are enough commonalities, like some essential differences.

– Darius places chronicles the murder of his brother Kambysi before the departure of the monarch for the Egyptian campaign, While the Halicarnassus in space that Cambyses is located in Egypt.

– Different names. Even if we accept that the ' Smerdis ' transposing into Greek of the Persian name "Mparntigia", diversification remains in the name of the usurper Magician, that according to Herodotus is again ' Smerdis ', While in Darius ' Gkaoymata ' (name that alludes to the Comet of Ioystinoy, that, though, is a conspirator against Kambysi, but it raises in the throne his brother, the Oropasti).

– The role of Darius is presented and evaluated differently in one and in the other text (Briant, ibid., SLE. 112, 120). Darius does reason for conspiracy, mentions only loyal supporters (which coincide almost exactly with those mentioned as conspirators Herodotus: the only differentiation relates to the Arntoymanis, who can not be identified with the Aspathini of Herodotus). The Royal power, Darius has to Achoyra Mazda (and to himself).

– How and where killing the usurper. Instead of murder in Palace, Darius talks about battles and capture Fort in which he had holed up with supporters of the magician.

II. An attempted explanation

It is possible to reconcile all these narrations and especially that of Herodotus as Darius; How much historical truth contain; Let's try to see a little more clearly.

(a). Opponents brothers: Before departing for his expedition to Central Asia, that would be fatal for him, Cyrus (probably the 530) He named his successor officially the greatest son, the Kambysi. The youngest son, the Mparntigia, the "compensated" diorizontas the satrap of the Bactrian, with the privilege of exemption from the obligation to return tax ypoteleias to his brother. (Briant, ibid., SLE. 60, 113). The taste of Cyrus for the first born were from long-established: already from the 539, had him named King of Babylon.

The completely negative image of Kambysi which give the classical sources should be treated with a lot of reservations. As noted by Briand it literary place, often combined with the known arguments on Persian decadence (ibid., SLE. 60, 109). Usually there is a contrapuntal presentation of "good" Cyrus, "father" of the Empire, and the despotic and demented Kambysi. Typical is the placement of Herodotus "Cambyses he despot, Kuros he father ... • He ὅτι chalepos te in, oligwros, • He ὅτι ipios Te ἀgatha and always» sfi emichanisato (Iii "Thalia", 85, 3). General, all evils and sins that the sources attribute it to Kambysi is not at all certain that correspond to historical reality (see. e.g.. Briand, ibid., SLE. 66 op., where, based on Egyptian sources, the historian attempting to refute the accusations of destruction of the sacred Kambysi).

In any case, the enmity between Kambysi and Mparntigia/Smerdios is an indisputable fact, a and a lot of evidence shows that the second never accepted the paternal choice: the negation of (and even two times) be presented to the Royal Court at the invitation of his brother, the anecdote that captures Herodotus about the arc of King of Ethiopia etc.

(b). The big scam (;) Darius: The most paradoxical aspect of the story is ultimately the existence of usurper Magician, that exploits the fact that the "murder" of his brother King had kept secret. This element, They apparently raised first himself Darius and accepted the Greek authors, It is suspected from the outset. Darius has every interest to present himself as a natural exponent of Sogdiana and San initiator of restoration of dynastikis legality. Does, well, the magician usurper (Gkaoymata/Smerdis/Sfendadatis/Oropastis) It is simply a spurious spin of Darius, in order to hide that the real usurper of Royal power (and killer of his brother Kambysi and most legitimate heir to the) was he; The question that put nearly all contemporary historians and most suspected that the answer should be affirmative! This is also the place of Pierre Briand (ibid., SLE. 112 op.). The same version also presents the Gore Vidal in his novel Creation. Moreover, It seems incredible the ' fact ' that Royal spouses Atossa and Faidymi didn't realize anything associated with the murder of his brother Kambysi and his replacement by a magician usurper (Briant, ibid., SLE. 112).

Therefore, If there was one usurper of Royal power in the years of Kambysi, He must have been originally his brother, the Mparntigia/Smerdis. As we saw previously, even in Herodotus (Iii "Thalia", 66), Persian nobles sequence Kambysi have precisely this belief. If we follow the chronological order of events according to Herodotus, the Cambyses, having subjugated Egypt, gets the way back in spring 522. While in Syria is injured in the leg and gangrene causes his death at the beginning of summer. Based on the story of Darius in the inscription of Mpechistoyn, the Gkaoymata declared himself King in early March 522. Combining these figures with the animosity between the two brothers, We can conclude that indeed the Mparntigia rebelled against his brother. But either he was usurper, or not, After the death of Kambysi the Mparntigia/Smerdis becomes legal successor of his brother, who died childless.

(c). Literary fiction; We can consider that the narrative of Herodotus about the conspiracy of seven and the rise of Darius in the throne meet the historical events; Too difficult. The symbolic number seven is suspect. The various illustrated facts (the disclosure of the identity of the magician from Faidymi, the selection of a new King by using ippomanteias, the trick of ippokomoy Darius) seem to constitute elements of an imaginative literary screenplay and only. As for the deliberations of Seven concerning the future Constitution of Persia, These are taken directly from Greek political discussions (Briant, ibid., SLE. 121).

Conspiracy, of course, must have been. The participants are all superior Persians nobles who probably belonged to the intimate environment of Kambysi and had every reason to believe that her brother and successor would behave absolutely hostile. The Otanis was indeed among the greatest nobles: his sister, the Kassandani, She was the wife of Cyrus, his daughter Faidymi was married to the Kambysi (and then the Mparntigia. Darius is son of Ystaspi, which inadvertently Herodotus (Iii ' Thalia ', 70) as Governor of Persia, but it was actually rather satrap of Parthia during that period (inscription of the Mpechistoyn, 2the column, 35/ Briant, ibid., SLE. 124), had not accompanied the Kyro in his campaign in North and Central Asia. Darius himself had already distinguished personal, having been faretroforos of Cyrus and satellite (arshtibara) of Kambysi, He held i.e. axiom that make it first in rank among the nobles of King's suite. Of Course, though Darius is trying to present itself as legitimate successor, may had close kinship with the Kyro and Kambysi, While it is difficult to accept that belonged to a minor branch of the Royal family (Briant, ibid., SLE. 122 op.). The attempt (the inscription of Mpechistoyn) to display a family tree that brings him diseggono of the founder of the Achaimeni dynasty (person who is not mentioned by any earlier Persian source) is, When Briand, simply rearranging the dynastikis legitimacy solely on the basis of the interest of Darius.

Of Course, There is also a Variant that discredits morally alafghany when absolutely. Be considered that is responsible and the accident that deprived him of his life Kambysi. In such a case, Darius is the standard of immoral conspirator and the terminator of the legitimate imperial dynasty. However, it is not necessary to go that far and to accept both pulled matters (except maybe though we admire the glory and imagination of Herodotus).

Besides, the Empire probably won with the dynastic change. Darius was to prove to be the more capable monarch of: giving not only the greatest territory (with the annexation of three of the Indian satrapies elsewhere), but the most significant economic development. Unfairly i.e. featured Herodotus ' kapilo ';

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