The science that studies the human language,said Linguistics. By the end of the 19th century was not an independent science, but language issues only mentioned in literature.
Linguistics can be divided into three major sectors:
(a)) General linguistics, which examines the phenomena of live spoken language, the rules under which every phenomenon works in the language and context that have linguistic phenomena to mental functions,
(b)) historical grammar and linguistic history, examining the lesions which exist elements of language with the passage of time,
(c)) comparative linguistics, which examines all the languages that exist on Earth, the classification process, Classification into groups and identifying similarities and differences in.
For the study of languages and their changes during the year linguistics uses various tools of philology, as the voice, grammar, semantics etc..
The importance of linguistic science is enormous. Apart from the clear knowledge that offers, about what language is and how it changed over the centuries, linguistics succeeded in discovering and reading linguistic monuments dating 5.000 years BC. thus brought to the attention of the people whole civilizations that had flourished in prehistoric times.
History of linguistics The first linguistic research, which took the form of etymology, already observed by Homer, who in his epics trying to explain the etymology of several heroes and gods names. After Homer and other writers of antiquity made the same effort in this regard. However, their research was not successful, why not even know their phonetic rules, through which they certify if the etymology were correct or not. Their explanations but posed the first examples of linguistic examination of words.
In classical times the Plato's dialogue "Cratylus" examines a fundamental problem of linguistic science, ie if several words were created "in nature or in law". Certainly the ancient Greeks never reached perfection and profundity of Indian linguists, But were the main founders of linguistic terms, still used today. The Romans began to deal with their language just the first BC. century (CDAP, Flakkos, Quintilian, Priskianos) and in the context of perfect imitation of Greek examples.
Science whose object is to read and study the writing of manuscripts bygone days, said Paleography.
The material on which are the texts examined by the paleography, It is mainly the parchment and paper. WHAT,what is written on papyrus examined by a special science, the papyrology, while the inscriptions on a hard material examined by the epigraphy. The parchment is made of animal skin that receives special treatment and was used from antiquity to the 13th century. The paper gradually supplanted the parchment since its introduction as stationary during the 13th century. and prevails until today.
While every written language has its own paleography, the Greek and Latin paleography of particular interest and have been studied more than any other language.
Greek paleography. Inaugurated the work of a Benedictine monk, Bernard de Monfokon, «Palaeographia Graeca», issued in Paris 1708. They followed several projects, mainly French and German, with which the study methods were introduced and its problems. In Greece the paleography was represented by experts, such as S.. Brilliant, S.. Kougeas, (A). Sigalas, L.. Etc. Greek citizen writing monitored palaeographical from the 4th century. e.g.. chronological framework, the designated, is:
(a)) the era of the Ptolemies
(b)) Roman times as M. Constantine
(c)) The period of the M. Constantine as the year 800 (establishment of minuscule)
(d)) The period 800-1204
(e)) The period from the time Palaiologan as the invention of printing
(f)) the period from the invention of printing, and the following
For the types of writing, divided into :
(a)) Calligraphic or books· m’ this mainly written books and is particularly careful
(b)) demotic, daily use, in which written documents and private letters,
(c)) Writing formal secretariat, ie the royal or highest administrative authorities.
In the history of Greek writing is the 9th century. a.d., because then introduces the minuscule. Almost all surviving literary books from the 4th century. p. X. as the early 9th century. a.d. written in large print, which comes from the writing of ancient inscriptions. The minuscule seem to come from the need of the church to stop Christians to use the ancient majestic letters encountered in the temples of Greek gods. This change of the lettering seems systematized in these years, then adopted as writing books. Since indications are that this project became the Studium monastery at Constantinople, which was a powerful spiritual center of the Byzantine capital in the 9th century. The adoption of minuscule course does not mean the abolition of large print, which survives either initials or in the text and influence as the minuscule. It should be noted that the current Greek writing just comes from the minuscule to the 9th century., in conjunction with the capital's oldest large print.
Another milestone in Greek paleography is the discovery and introduction of the printing press. When Aldus Manutius printed the first Greek books in Venice at the end of the 15th century., received the shapes of the letters from the manuscripts of his time, that's why the writing of these books are almost identical to the script. However, hand many works continued to be written, as the 19th century.
Leading Greek Foreign Scientists wrote about the origin of the alphabet
1. (A). Ζαρντέ στό "The Formation of the Greek people", Paris 1923 SLE 215 It supports the Greek character of the alphabet.
2. As French philosopher Rene Ntysso IN «Journal Asiatique» ,1,357,1905 He has supported how they took Phoenician alphabet from the Greeks : "Ci livable toppled A to form head ox(Vougenis = Dionysos).
3. O Evans THE «scripta minoa Oxford» 1909 clearly states that the Cretans brought the letters in Phenicia.
4. Plutarch "banquet" explains the subject of the alpha, saying how first the Viotia attended and not the Phoenicians.
5. Diodorus in the "book E74" says : "Tais NOT Mousaios dothinai the Father THE letters evresin AND THE OF THE Epics composition prosagorefmeni poetic" – "Palm CDR outset evrein letters, but the types of letters metatheinai only, and either writing principle itself of the majority of people chrisasthe and wherefore tychein the aforesaid common noun ".
6. Polyvios IN "Historically IA,4" says : "Olson Law, CDR custom, oulogos uh Another no amen publicly in kind towards each other (Palms and Greek)».
7. Herman Dillon German literature at the "Pre-Socratic AND IN ARTICLE Orpheus" says:"Greeks not only knew writing, but writing the comments and minds of thin boards ".
8. Argonautica 'verse 44 and 104 'we see that : "Orpheus exelochefse sacred words in Egypt and Libyan.
9. Persson Professor Uppsala 1951, It reached the conclusion that the script is Cretan Origin (linear A).
10. Soulten professor at on Noumantias found that writing was in use in Crete since 2000pch.
11. Ventris and Chadwick (linguists) revealed the Greek character Linear B
12. Whatever Chourmousiadis archaeologists 1994 unearthed wooden plaque engraved with letters of 5260 eg (Daily 15\2\94).
13. Whatever kavadi (Academic) in his work "Prehistoric Archeology" indicates how the alphabet is Greek.
14. The same says and C Arvanitopoulos on "Inscriptional 'project.
15. Whatever DB. Marinated University Professor at the "ancient Cretan culture" project also tells how the alphabet is Greek.
16. O Papagianopoulos Professor epigraphers 1939 project "Alexander the Great and the World Hellenism" Greek ed, Darius page 146 It has supported the alphabet how poorly thought how is Phoenician.
17. Theodore Birch German History Professor at work "Alexander the Great" certifies for the Greek character of the alphabet.
18. Whatever "Tsilmert Murray» English historian and scholar says that the Greeks knew the first writing.
19. The Germanos Schneider at «Der Kretische Ursprung des Phonizichen Alphabets» indicate how Cretan is the alphabet.
20. Theophilus Vauger everything important linguist of Europe considers the Greeks as saying the alphabet creators AS FOLLOWS : "Atopic gar THE foundation of Greek dialect, barbaric finding speaking "-" Grammar Choiroboskos, Foreword, p340 »
21. Vetch supports how welter of words The arguments to the primitive Hebrew alphabet and that of course the letters given by the Greeks to the Jews and not vice versa (Umberto Eco: "The search for the perfect language").
22. The French magazine L 'EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL T,2611, 19/8/2001 says: "Or Hellas owes everything, alphabet, righteous, Democracy, Theatron, Sports, Philosophy, Mathematics, Medicine, Moral, Astronomy, Art…»
23. Prof. Oliver Taplin. Oxford , The Greeks have established literacy in the heart of Western civilization, and is why the word is Greek from the first two Greek letters.
24. Henry Miller (ekd.Pleias) says : "Knossos or bequeathed to the world the most magnificent heritage humanity has ever known alphabet. Knossos was secular WITH true sense of the word. Culture represented dissolved 1500 years ago come to earth as Savior, he bequeathed to the whole Western world the alphabet ".
25. New Webster Dictionary of English Language edition Grolier, New York , The alphabet is Greek
26. Dionysios Zakythinos, The alphabet is Greek
27. Harris Lampidis, The alphabet is Ellinikon
28. Paul Faure IN "or everyday life in Crete Minoan era" Ed Okeanis Athinai 1976 says : "The alphabet is Cretan origin '.
29. Reinach στό "The Celts in the valees-inch-and-the-Danube" λέγει πώς Μυκηναϊκό είναι τό Αλφάβητον.
30. Burrews «The discoveries in Crete» Greek was everything Phoenix.
31. HUMEZ «Alpa to Omega» pseftai s Foinikistai
32. LODS «pre-Christian era, Greek ed, Divris page 109 "Greeks taught Alfaniton palm trees
33. Dussaud «Les Civilisations prehelleniques dans le basin de la mere gee» The Greeks gave the alphabet to the Palm.
34. Ouil Ntyran 'history of civilization' Ell.Ekd Athens 1965 volume A. The alphabet says Duras is Ellinikon.
35. Charles Bairlits "Mysteries from forgotten worlds" Eng,Ed, Tailor, SLE 253. Ellinikon alphabet.
36. Andreas Papagiannopoulos archaeologist epigrafologos, The alphabet says are Greek.
37. Mario Pei Καθηγητής γλωσσολογίας στό Columbia University USA «Funk and Wagnalis New Encyclopedia» 1972 volume 13 SLE 451. The alphabet was Greek.
38. De Saussure «Course in general linguistuics» page 39, Hellinikon is the alphabet.
39. Arvanitopoulos (1874-1938) Home versions Athens 1937 volume 1. Ellinikon alphabet.
40. George Smith Mauritius Schmitt 1872 and 1876 Also according to the Greek origin of the alphabet.
41. Evening Gazette 27\3\87 written by 8000 eg
42. Gov. Acropolis 17\1\87 As ESO destroys archaeological finds, etched performances.
43. Southern Gazette 25\11\86 on Greek Alphabet.
44. Konstantinos Tsatsos University Professor, Philosopher, Lawyer, Poet. The alphabet is Ellinikon.
45. Professor Stassinopoulos, The alphabet is Ellinikon.
46. ILIAD 168 'Vasilefs Proitos sent to the pentheron of a letter from (Cadmus signals).
47. Euripides (Aposp.578) Palamidis,Epicharmus of Kos and Simonidis concocted alphabet.
48. Gkeorgief Bulgarian Academy According to the Greek origin of the alphabet.
49. Jacqueline de Romilly: The eminent ellinistria, struggling for the teaching of ancient Greek texts and happiness which can offer in Europe, as she asserts. Participating in the campaign "A tree for Greece", aimed at reforestation of the burnt August, declares the "Free Press" of Athens: "This is just about solidarity! For what civilization owes to Greece. The Greek culture is the point of departure of all the world's cultures "...
50. Henrietta Walter, French Linguist "in the language we are all Greeks".
51. Herodotus' over time by changing the language, and alter rate of letters ".
52. The historian Douris attributed the letter to Phoenix, tutor of Achilles.
53. Whatever M.Minoide IN of "Calliope" treatise writes: "Pindar is of the opinion that the letters invented by an Athenian named lyrics.
54. S.G. Rembroke in his work (The legacy of Greece, oxford university press 1994) says : "In the palm was offered role intermediaries escaping any information of History. A role that is the carrier of wisdom and culture of the "chosen people towards them uncivilized and municipalities to the Greeks".
55. Damianos chubby 'study ( Birth and interpretation of the Greek Bible, Athens 1987) She writes features : "Children are taught that the Greeks borrowed writing from the Phoenicians. How did the Greeks a people so expressive, original, iconolaters, resourceful, it is possible to capture the spoken speech to loans Figures, foreign to his own mental world, its own events and of course completely mechanical ".
56. Suidas Lemma -Samion municipality- He considers that the letters epinoithisan Samos the Athenians transferred them to the east.
57. "Some remarks NOT Fassi nature of their position par'imin by Hermes Cpd palm foliage written katapemfthinai per mankind".
58. Aristides what orator, As ex'Andrioupoleos of Asia Minor originating THE 2ai.mch writes: "Pass gar cities and all men genera to us and from our advanced diet and voice deviated…Hercules columns…Libya…Bosporus…Syria.. Cilicia, but all the land…and di'imon unanimously fact pass or universe '.
59. Everything Will Durant(1885-1981) philosopher, historian and professor at Columbia University, writes: "Alphabet us came to the west by Kymis". What else do find to convince, not the Americans or Pakistanis that the alphabet is own of, but the Greeks talk, that the alphabet is own of. The 480 Themistocles defeated them palms in Salamina, Their Cimon defeated THE 466 Eurymedon and C Anaxicrates them defeated THE 449 in Cyprus .
The Gentile is first developed writing system for interact and express his thoughts, Images of, ideas etc.. Or view hypothetical, undocumented, unscientific theories accompanied and complemented by unilateral and authoritarian aspect reads the origin of the Greek alphabet from Phoenician letters, THE Phoenician Alphabet, which in essence was never syllabary and alphabet. The only argument of Foinikiston are the words of Herodotus: "And the Palm brought in teaching sectors Greeks and municipalities and letters CDR eonta before ELLIS, Me as dokeei ". The last sentence himself Herodotus makes a reservation. THE doko verb mean think, assume. Also he brought what Herodotus writes letters and not introduced the letters. Expressed vaguely and said of palms : "Over time by changing the language, and alter rate of letters ". Learning Greek words Palms, alter the language. Sicily TO E74 sets: "Tais NOT Mousaios dothinai the Father THE evresin of letters"- and not evresin letters in vague. And indicates that even the so-called Phoenician letters were invention palm, but an adaptation of the Greek letters: "Fassi palms CDR Ex evrein authority, but the types of letters metatheinai only ". Founder of Phenicia Agenor was the father of Phoenix ,THE Kadnou and Europe. The word Phoenix is Ellinikotati and means purple, Red, rooted in murder-foinios-killing.
s Peleseth (Cretans who were called upon Philistines) when they settled areas coastline of NDV Palestine, brought together and the writing, WHICH knew and emimithisan nomadic masses, after which they settled there, esfeteristhisan the name with historical fulfillment. Moreover, they are achieved by Skopjans WITH Macedonia name. Besides the Phoenician name is known to the Greeks. Whatever Daris Iereas of Vulcan Cpd Troas, He wrote on palm leaves oldest Iliad of Homer, which the Aelian says that he saw. The historian Douris attributed the letters on Phoenix, tutor of Achilles. The Phoenicians us say that we found the letters, in fact what had been syllabary. Not have vowels, not echaraxan wooden panels or clay tablets, or pebbles, nor marbles. Adiefkrinisto remains what exactly wrote the Phoenicians. One thing is certain today: not wrote anything. Whatever M.Minoide IN of "Calliope" treatise writes: "Pindar is of the opinion that the letters invented by an Athenian named lyrics. Josephus tried nagnomi how letters invented by an Athenian named lyrics. Josephus sought to demonstrate how palms and Jews were the same origin (perhaps because he was a Jew), but not convinced, because too exaggerated Hebrew events in order to present these people until the oldest civilized. Or Ugarit, ancient city, the ruins of which are located near the city of Latakia (northern Syria) and discovered the 1928. The prosperity of the city is placed in the period from 15th to 12th century. e.g.. Today the area is called Ras Samra. Knowing the history of the city is based on archaeological excavations carried out in the area, by French archaeologist Claude Scheffer Strasbourg University. On tablets clay recorded important events of the city history. It seems that Ugarit was tributary to Egypt originally, and then at Hittites, while trade with the Greeks of Cyprus and Crete were significant, as evidenced by the rich pottery found in the excavations. Are written in cuneiform signs evrethisan use four languages, proof that the city was cosmopolitan center, which flocked Akkadian, Hittites, Greeks from Crete, Mycenae. Thessaly Kypro.Ektos of the four languages in Ugarit used seven different kinds of writing. So that the tale THE FINIKIA give us eat today. A shopping center where gather all civilized peoples, going to be the creation of all civilized people. Not efyire Switzerland or money because today more money goes there, nor Phenicia efyire no alphabet because there epigainon Greeks, Egyptians and Asians. Palms there used a cuneiform formula with 30 points, which was common in some languages to communicate with virtually all visitors. Therein inhabitants they believed IN Baalism and Doug, but because some events in the region seem to confirm interest in the Old Testament (About Elias Imposter etc.), The theory of Palms suited Jews promote and leave no serious scientist to angixei.I second Ugaritic writing had 22 symfonogrammata with which attributed only 22 under the tongue so the second writing can be considered symfonitario. But where is the alphabet ;
Or mikrozoi this theory of Palms, introduced to Europe in a time where he writes as an English classic S.G. Rembroke in his work (The legacy of Greece, oxford university press 1994) says : "In the palm was offered role intermediaries escaping any information of History. A role that is the carrier of wisdom and culture of the "chosen people towards them uncivilized and municipalities to the Greeks". In late Middle Ages, whereby fundamentalism and obscurantism had reached a point, They want to be the daughter of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia as him Ieftha, Deucalion as Ark, Orpheus as Moisi or distortions IN THE Tiresias, THE Faethona as Satan etc.. From the 1599 But with visiting British missionaries to India, where there was a movement of linguistic interest, by national grammar in the comparison of languages. The need presented missionaries to demonstrate or European language (namely Greek or) should de well be originated from some Asian, in order to lead us in the Old Testament and to thank them good Jews who gave us language talking and a good Jew goodness to pistefoume.Oi notices the similarities of language created a climate of interest in many European wise, that, traveling, their studies, and money coming from rich Jews, They found that there are many correspondences between words in European languages and Indian. Where then would become The Phoenician 1798 published in the book of Padua Italian missionary Paulinus a Sauto Bartolomeo «For antiquity and affinity of language zendikis (namely the ancient Persian), Sanskrit (ie ancient Indian) and German ", which caused huge impression. In that a coat hanger will judge Homer this causes no impression. Since comparative research was continued by many. Founder of linguistics is considered Franz BOOP, who in 1816 efyire the common origin of the main European languages and Indian, Armenian, Persian etc.. But what is the common origin ;
The city of Beirut and Beirut, He took its name from Veria daughter Adonidos and Venus. Damascus or current capital of Syria took the onma of Damascus BY son of Hermes and of Alimidis, Arcadia (St.Vyzantios). Ancient Greek colony was Sidon. But to the Trojan times himself Menelaos had visited and King thereof Faidimos OF donated valuable crater. This admits himself Menelaos Telemachus wherein echarise crater this ((d),615-619). Teukros brother of Ajax came in Sidon and having help from King Vilos, ekyriefse Cyprus and built Salamis. Also King of Sidona Falla advises Sarpidona not allied with the Trojans more with Achaious. Eusebius of Caesarea gives everything its inception urban IN LiCl, Head of Eloim (of Gods), the correlation Saturn the Greeks. The dressing has its name from azone son Irakleous. Between 1150-1050 Cretans settled in Palestine. O Mpratsiotis believes that God Dagon was alloy Canaanites and Cretan divinity. Despite Bethlehem found Metropolis Philistine. These per tafois Philistines Found grommet, silver and pottery, demonstrates Mycenaean art. The existence Crete, Palestine is mentioned and from the Old Testament : Zephaniah V4-6 – Joel Chapter C., 6 - Isaiah chapter i, 12 - Ezekiel chapter JV, 16. Even worse for the Jews, Genesis chapter KG3-4 stated how Abraham who has been chief of the Jews, denotes that they are strangers in Palaistini1100pch. Whatever Koumaris professor at the project "Peoples of the East" says that the Hittites were old Asian people, from Aigaiatikis. The Hittites did not belong to Semitic peoples. Resemble European morphology and especially Mediterranean. Loannis Pasa them appears in M. Asia UNDER 2000 BC-derived Embed. As for Phoenix, the name Phoenix FROM Was coming generations Inachou, ancient king of Argos. Eventually not only not found an Alphabet Palms, But even the city founded by the Greeks.
Authors consider the name foinikeia letters, Of red color in which you wrote. Others believe that the name comes from palm leaves where they wrote. After however's Flood Defkalionos, no guarded letters in memory, Except Pelasgon, af'Ellados areas of barbarians planithenton. Other grammarians call the letters clearly Pelasgic. Others say how Cretan letters, how others are ex-tutor of Achilles, Phoenix, but there are others who say how the letters brought Mercury, engraved palm leaves "Some remarks NOT Fassi nature of their position par'imin by Hermes Cpd palm foliage written katapemfthinai per mankind". Others authors say how Sisyphus found letters. Euripidis and Stesichorus insist on Palamidis, while Suidas Lemma -Samion municipality- He considers that the letters epinoithisan Samos the Athenians transferred them to the east. The Paphos inscription on one fountain, or inscription Delphi vessel "Amfitrion m'anethike handles from tilevoaon", or testimony of Homer when referring IN Bellerophon "Grapsas Cpd a plate ptykto thymofthora many", His works Orpheus, or testimony of Dionysius, student of Aristarchus and many others suggest that the Greeks were writing long before the Trojan war, and well before naturally occur in the world Palms. At first the Greeks had 16grammata: (A),(B),(C),(D),(E),(J),K,L.,M,N,THE,P,R,S.,T,computer. Simonides added H,Oh,X,Y and G Palamidis before it was invented I.,Phi,X,(G). If this were true it, Homer THE aware. Some attribute finding Th,Phi,X,Z in Epicharmus of Kos Syracuse, who was a contemporary of Cadmus. "THE Foinikeia were called letters, as fisin..Eteonefs and Menandros, as historian, because Cpd petalois foinikikois egrafonto, The opera kreitton Estin speak, that Phoenician Women THEMSELVES Mind, ie glorified " (Bekker Anecd). Or Greek language also presents normal development :
1. Early stage Eikografiko
The cuneiform writing at Behistun in western India has never led to the greatness of Greek writings and hostages.
Cyprus and Linear B have already been decoded and are expressed quite clearly the Greek language unbroken. Linear B is an evolution of Linear A(Tsikritsis Linear B ekd.Vikelaias, Even the National Geographic accordance with this development ekd.Ell.t.6,1999) and deciphered by Ventris and Chadwick THE 1952. Relevant signs found O Evans THE 1900 in Crete, and others such as round Eptanese, Central Greece and the Peloponnese.
THE most important in Greek hieroglyph is the Phaistos Disk, It could not be etched but shows fingerprints of small seals and is considered the first step in printing.
Engraved plaques found in the Arkalochori of Crete. Everything supports Evans from the beginning : "How Linear B and syllabic expresses Greek language. Tells how the Phoenicians received the script from the Cretans, which during the 13th century BC colonized the coast of Palestine as Philistines ". Around the same time as Rene Ntysso postulated: "Palms had received proimotata alphabet, despite the Greeks, eutin had formed so EC cretomycenean writing ". Essentially palms received syllabary and For this reason never developed alphabet. Like so they picked and remained. Ie the word DDMS palms understand Didymaion, David and so. Conversely Greek or normal development set resulted in the current writing system, the first and only i.e. alphabet in history. An important element brought by Ventris were as Doric elements had Linear B, positioning time Dorians after Mykinaioys, yielding another "slap" in Indo-European theories and Dorians, The Apaches, or Zulu and others 'Greek' that can come around 1200 e.g..
So always were the Dorians in the Peloponnese and therefore no historian writes not for them. The only descent of writing ancient writers, is or cathode of Herakleidon and recount THERETO, the return of displaced persons from the Peloponnese Heraklion descendants, In progonikin and dorikin-standing PELOPONNISOU (Aristotle, Strabo, Curator, Diodorus). Cathode means homecoming, such return. Descent of the myriad means return, return, repatriation, under Xenofon. Therefore Just say rise and drop in temperature and not the anode and cathode of temperature. The last touch of Foinikiston was whether the Greek alphabet is, The results of font names would have to be were declinable. But the names of the elements' indeclinable eisin, Quasi alpha alpha alpha TD, beta beta beta so on TD. because eisin principalities, al NOT ancient and root things simple and shall be apoikiloi, Quasi or lefkotitis simple Estin and apoikilos…lest directly areas dyschereian these perivallomen and syncheomen them in a variety of settings "(Comm.eis Dion.Thraka Comments Vaticana).
The Greeks wrote documented from the 6th millennium. Kastoria Dispilio his teacher Aristotle University KG Hourmouziadis, found PLATE 5260 e.g., which has been dated to the most modern methods and are at archaeological Athens museum. This plaque was designated first or inscription worldwide. Three years later the curator of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities' A.Sampson "the cave of Cyclops IN Yura of Northern Sporades discovered pottery fragments with the same letters with current alphabet. These pots dated to 4500 e.g.. He himself archaeologists 1995 Milos discovered protocycladic vessels of the instrument of the third millennium, which were engraved letters M,X,N,K,X,P,THE,(E). First O Evans expressed the view that the graphics and alphabet originates in Greek. Whatever "POL" in the American magazine "Archeology" gives signs evrethisan IN Cyclopean wall of Ithaca, Linear A of 2700pch. For example : The oldest Chinese inscriptions him 1450pch, while the oldest Hebrew text is him 700pch. The oldest texts of English dates back to the 8th century AD, the Germans in the 4th century AD(bishop Ulfilas), French belongs to 9th century AD (The Oaths of Strasbourg), of Italians 1150mch (kantilena), Spaniards of the oldest texts date back to the 10-one century AD and Portuguese dates back to the 12th century.
Gortyn was very old town city of Crete. Its name is taken from the hero Gortyna, son of Radamanthys (formerly called Ellotis and Larissa). There is no evidence about whether there was in the Minoan era. Many are however those who consider it as the seat of very old inhabitants of Crete (Hdeck). What is certain is that there seems to already flourishing during the heroic times. Homer (Ile. (B), 646 and Cs. (C), 204) calls it “teichioessan” and mentions among the Cretan cities had reached flourished. The also says in Plato “Laws” of (IV, 708) as prosperous and well-governed city. But several others. Its prosperity lasted, with some fluctuations course, as the 863 m.a.ch.ch. katalithfike which was destroyed by the Saracens.
At the time of Roman occupation Gortyna was the seat of the Roman governor.
The place where was the old town Gortys is located exactly between the present villages and Ten Saints Cathedral, right and left river Mitropoliano (old Litheos) progressing and flows into the Libyan Sea 90 stages, 16 i.e.. kilometers south. 3. In this area, among other findings and found that dodekastili “great sign” mentioned at the beginning and which is better known as “Codex of Gortyna”.
The discovery of the basic part of it is due to the Italian archaeologist Federico Halbherr that found with the guidance (from distance) another great Italian antiquarian, of Domenico Comparetti and considerable on-site assistance of the German Ern. Fabricius. The inscription has been found all together. A small piece that included the 15 first verses of 11 column found, in the middle of the 19th century, two French tourists, G.. Perry and L. Thenon built in’ a watermill village Ten Saints. This part of the inscription was to the scientific community of the time the first hint of the existence of the inscription.
Twenty years later, The Frenchman also B. Haussoulier, found walled in’ a home of the same village again, new part of the inscription: one that includes 15 first verse (but only the left halves of the column 7 and a few letters of the verses 10 – 15 10 column). But the essential discovery of the inscription due to F. Halbherr mentioned above. He systematically excavated the site and found, the 1884, the first four columns of the Code of Gortyna. Following the instructions -because he could not continue to the end of the excavations- the Ern. Fabricius discovered and the remaining parts of the importance of this inscription was discovered when it was considered as the greatest archaeological discovery of the last century. The interpretation of, They say then, that would employ psychologists and lawyers for a generation (Caillemer). But if the matter is not yet as much the imagined the era of discovery, however, it is very high: is the inscription of Gortyna one of the most extensive to date-found Greek inscriptions, text constant and preserved in excellent condition. It consists of twelve columns, each of which includes 55 lyrics (except that only twelfth 35). Initially the label as a whole would include around 630 – 640 lyrics. The gaps, that despite the fullness exhibited when found, one was achieved be completed thanks to the part that Thenon found and handed 1862 the Louvre and the other thanks to the part discovered, as we said above, the Haussoulier the 1879. So far it appears that only about 30 Our lyrics are missing: 15 the column and 10th 15 from 12. Incomplete is also first ten verses of 9 column. The inscription originally placed inside the circular wall of the city court (Paoli). Later, during the Roman era, when the laws contained in the inscription were obsolete, the stones, on which was engraved in red text Code, used, but with the same configuration initially, as building material, for another building, the ruins of which and we find today.
The columns of the inscription height 1,75 Measure and width 0,69 (some 0,67). Their letters are carved fine, audibly, So commensurate’ it and reading it would be easy if there were idioms of the Doric dialect which is written and disasters certainly presents some parts.The alphabet used in this include 19 only letters. ie missing. The letters, X, Phi, X, Y and Z that replace the E, KS, P, CP and O. It also includes the digamma: F.
This interpretation has caused many discussions, Several readings were proposed receiver relatively. There was an old inscription. S.’ This was also the fact that the words were etched boustrophedon, i.e.. from right to left and then from left to right and so on. (It noted that the pillars also of the inscription read starting from the right column and proceeding to the left) and the archaic form (shape) many letters. So at the beginning made them the sign program 3000 years at least. O but Comparetti and Caillemer dropped to make nearly IN century of Pericles, Not to spoil or fashion who wants the Greeks woke up one morning somewhere in the 5th century BC and to have discovered all, without work and past centuries. The difficulties of dating the Code of Gortyna are due to engage in this data and figures from the archaic one hand and on the other juridical institutions highly sophisticated (Caillemer). Argument for those who accept the antiquity of the Code of Gortyna could be the fact that there is nowhere mentioned in the inscription on documents. Certainly when chased by the Code of Gortyna, the writing was found (once the code is written).
In order to reach the Greeks TO CREATE alphabet, They had to start from primitive writings, to result in perfection which we know today. Minoans initially used a kind of writing hieroglyphic. Then they use the Linear ((A)) and the prevalence of Achaeon introduced or Linear ((B)). Decryption Linear B was made by British wireless operator Ventris, confirming that in this era, Knossos spoke the same language is spoken by the Achaeans. Hieroglyphics start building in Crete by the Greeks, because only given rise to the Greek-speaking culture on the island. THE Greek glyphs is self invention and are pictorial and phonetic character. Each Greek hieroglyphic represents an object with phonetic value. The difference of Greek dialects created the difference of rows A and B, which currently appear to represent main dialects the prehistoric Greek area. No wonder we have in Thessaly hieroglyphs or simply linearly with another phonetic value, which refers to the name of the same object in the local dialect. Linear create it to have the linear object representation and not the icon, Because the second wanted to write artistic hand seq time consuming. Or stagnation in research of linear scriptures because no one intentionally or unintentionally not realize that phonetic values follow the language and idioms that every word translation must follow again the local idiom, which, even today spoken in each geographical region of the Greek world with the meanings of each word had in Minoan and Mycenaean. On the occasion of reading and translation of hieroglyphic writing in the thesaurus of Aidonia, the pictures whose publication or Sunday 28/01/96 We understand the manner in which it writes the Greek glyphs and linear. In the performance of sfendolis IN glyph, We had the word sare word comes from Sarira.
In Hesychius word Laconians and means palm industry. Indeed in the inscription we have to woman holds a palm branch. We therefore use of the first syllable of the word with which we call the phoenix with the image to peristanetai this case WITH syllabic sa. Knowing that all scriptures depict the ancient Greek to local dialects, starting to examine the glyphs and by extension syllabic signs A and B. Or attempt impression of what the Greek saw with the eye, leads us to conclude that the hieroglyphs were thousands. Again linked dialects THE syllabic increased, because with the same image many phonetic values attributed.
A syllabic represented by several images said plurality of names and items that begin with the same syllabic. Having richer in language words, We can calculate how much would be the glyphs and syllabic.
• MO (gram.V) cow head = MO - schos
• MR (gram.V ) fruit of coriander = CR - Liandris
• KI (g. (B)) plan jug = Su - lIx
• NI ( g. (B) ) plan pout = NI - kylea (pout in Crete)
• I ( ierogl.) pattern nail = H - Larry
• KY (g. (A),(B)) drawing bird thrown = KY - knias is eagle
• Y (g. (A),(B) ) ship rudder draft = Y - value (rudder)
• NAD (ierogl.) ship design NAD = - g
• WHAT ( ierogl. and g. (A),(B)) draft tripod = Tl - env (tripod)
Linear grafi.Kathe script whose signs are linear shapes.
The oldest kind of writing, we find in Greek area, is the Cretan. Crete discovered three writing systems, the hieroglyphic, A linear and linear B. These writing systems used in Crete and throughout Greece, and led to alphabet.
The English archaeologist Arthur Evans (1851-1941) He turned his attention on the island and 1900 began excavations on the hill "head" of Knossos. From excavations came to light a large number of clay tablets with Linear symbols. In linear Minoan this writing Evans distinguished two phases: A linear, which predates, and linear B. The first phase of the linear Minoan writing takes place between the 1750 and of the 1450 e.g., about, while the second phase shown in Crete around 1400 e.g.. Notably signs in Linear A found throughout Crete, and signs with the Linear B only come from Knossos.
The large collection of text in Linear A consists of 150 about clay tablets, found in southern Crete, in today's Holy Trinity. These signs, many of which are minced, It seems to be mainly lists of agricultural products. Other signs in Linear A were Phaistos, Knossos, Paleokastro, Archanes and in other locations in Crete.
The symbols of the linear graph can be divided into four categories:
(a)) Numeric and metric.
The difference and distinction of phonetic symbols and ideograms is not always clear.
For the Linear B. Evans did express the opinion that it was in use only at Knossos and that disappeared after the destruction of the palace in the early 14th century BC. Evans made the hypothesis that Linear B is a kind of "spell royal ', developed by the scribes of the palace and was used only at Knossos. But the theory is disputed, as signs found in Linear B and mainland Greece.
The relationship of the system of linear A and linear B can not be accurately determined, as it is not possible to determine accurately and time started and stopped two writing systems in Crete. Probably both of these writing systems used in parallel for some time. In mainland Greece, particularly in Thebes, Mycenae, Orchomeno, Tiryns, Eleusis and elsewhere, Symbols found on jars, identical to the symbols of Linear B. But clay tablets in Linear B found at Mycenaean palace near Pylos during systematic excavations by Carl Blegen in 1939. These signs of Pylos examined and published 1955 The Emmet Bennet. Understandably, the discovery of inscribed tablets, in Crete, and in mainland Greece, caused huge interest. Many scientists have tried to decipher the texts of these signs, without satisfactory and positive results. but one in which the glory of decryption of the plates in Linear B is the English architect M. Ventris. In Ventris had made a great impression the work of Evans and worked persistently and with great zeal, to decrypt the linear B. The great effort ameiftike. The 1952 published its conclusions, with which proves that the Linear B script is Greek. The script is now called "Mycenaean". But signs that read do not give us a historical document, but all lists of goods and assets that were the rulers and merchants of that era. Therefore, the signs do not give us real historical information.
The points of Linear B, which has high affinity with Cyprus, They can now be divided into two main types:
The Linear B syllabic script is basically. Several scientists have expressed doubts about the phonetic values, who attributed the Ventris graphics symbols and rules for their reading of texts proposed. But today generally accept the deciphering of Ventris.
It is known that language is not only this value itself and vector values. The decipherment of Linear B by Ventris threw light on the history of ancient Greek culture, that existed in mainland Greece and Crete many centuries before the Homeric era. Although the signs in Linear contain no actual historical information, affirm that this language is Greek and enlighten many parts of the private and social life of the Greeks in the second millennium BC.
The current alphabet is the prevalence of Ionic-Attic. Every Greek city-state had a pecial alphabet. Very small variations OF any alphabet did differ somewhat from the other. Ionic originally 27 letters, Corinthian had 24 letters, Kritikos 21, of Miletus 24, Halkidiki 25. What exactly were the Latins and which now uses the whole world. From Greek alphabet also descended the Etruscan, THE Cyrillic, The ancient Phrygian, of Lycia, THE Lydian, THE ARMENIAN, the cutting, THE GOTHIC, THE ROMANIAN(similar Latina).
Each letter of the Greek alphabet contains a fixed code importance which introduces literally or metaphorically as individual meaning of each word to which it belongs. Severe linguistic and etymological approach have made the Doric and Chatzigiannis. In summary, we learn that :
The letter A.(alpha) as the beginning, growth and (aldainein, do something to increase. The concept of increasing emerges Derivatives Al radical.). The shape of letter illustrates staircase, inception, development authority (Doric consider taking on English). The element despite THE alfo, THE evrisko.efrethi first gar other elements : alfano = evrisko, ktomai and alfi = Ktesios. Their data universe: air, aelios, ether, Rat, blood, als, authority and man. From the word Homer alfesivoiai, s Semites affect THE alfi, alef = Vous WHICH even had phonetic value sigma.
The letter B(beta) reduced to bolus verb, toot, roar the sound of strong wind (Vanchos the purposes of mania fest dummy). Beta can be explained as the occupant- that ascends- THE goes on (After) from the first letter. Figure NOT the letter represents successive mountain with projections and depressions. Reminds histone exploded sails(inflated sails).
The letter C. (Gamma) It is related to the earth (The sound of tools hitting Earth). FROM etymological superfamily ca-calve-Gaia- wedding- generation, or fleshly and mental birth, development or upbringing or culture or treatment of earth or natural objects. The angle is just two synatomenai eftheiai, knee-((a))volumes and (sp)galeion WHICH sliding on the earth causes the sound G..g..
The letter D.(delta) shaped estuaries and Metopi temples. It is related to the concept of the artificial, of forming, His marvelous illustration, the spiritual, conceivably, of overcoming difficulties (instruction-create-dao = learn).
The letter D.(Delta) coming from the linear B directly, Like other. The generated sound is likely to come and the doupon, the sound i.e. EP deltoid ax. Plato in Kratylos speaks by the force "of the delta compression).
The letter E(Epsilon) shown intentions Cpd, from, Exodus, s ff indicates the medium, THE vicinity Whose or expansion, distance from a starting point or reference (I am =, exists in a certain position and what am = come go). Its open shape E paint THE CONCEPTS represents.
The letter Z(zeta) declares THE MEANING OF seethe, bubble, warmed zao / Zeo. The concept of effervescence and of irregular rotational motion dizziness IN and IN zoros fiery, possible. Finally, in the Homeric zoo, discloses play action and momentum. The letter Z analytes in S. and D., Thus p-yrigmos and S-C under. By its shape symbolizes bridging two extremes, zefgnymi.
The letter H (eta) resulting from contraction or antektasi. The (the) ON dialects of ancient corresponds to Doric ((a)), THE Mycenean (eje), Attic (if). Map the Doric and Ionic ((a),the) produces the emphatic and semicolon (ή). Eta in H and, makrofonia alpha. Its shape is mutants of Schemes A and initially LAID DOWN THE daseian breath.
The letter T. (theta) Represents position, the role, placing within a range. Representative and the hall, Thanks, THE house, coziness (throne, desk, thorax, GOD = running on the concept of putting is the approximate.
The letter I (iota) shows the direction of the rectum, of direct, of direction, path toward the point or target (Further work also send =, drop, IEMA = scurry and ithys = straight). Iota ITEM, Despite ion of venomous animals. Gar as how the virus s rectum marches oh peprotai, so and accordingly writing proper Being, iota kalein inixato or of arrows viruses.
The letter K (kappa) indicates the content,that contained (kaptein = scrounge, carts = enclosure, box ). Or etymological hyper kg- and etymological of the family, The CAC as verb, cover the content of the letter Mr. , For the name of which is proposed Cap-fa Kappa (labial p assimilation,f). The shape of letter illustrating palm tensioned closing permissible IN handle. R packed bends and corners, captures the meaning of the cutting and bending, probably ichopoiiton.
The letter L. (Lambda) represents simasiologikos THE etymological hyper Love- covering the smoothing or scraping as the material edge and the result or product of grinding, polishing or shine so become relatives Words : RU = gemstone, lachos = share, lazomai = poach etc.. The shape of the letter is shaped abrasive sharp tool. And L. Plato says: the glotta slidable Meanwhile lambda, named him GFs smooth and this olisthanein AND THE fat and kollodes..Os to the shape of forceps resembles, receive, booty, lafo.
In Herodotus I. 117 illustrates illumination unto all direction
The letter M (uL / muscle) It includes THE hyper (Mar- ex-maiefsi )which has its origination meanings, maternity, using tricks or devises (THE battle). Maieutics used in posting truth learning mode. The name of M.(MU / ml) refers IN speakable with mygmo (With tone muscle) by compressing lip. The shape of the letter is as the breasts of woman and pronounced by closed edges. He has been likened and with two closed edges: Muscle ITEM, TINA is that mygmos or result ekfonisis, mygmos NOT Estin The muscle tone through the nostrils outgoing.
The letter N(Nu / wt) It takes the name from the bites having or pronunciation, but and the show as a conical pointed end, peak where embroiders, hole. The (n) As is typical phoneme of jaw-jaw-Canadian words, CONNECTED with sharp teeth WITH kakammeno angulated wedge-conical shape of the letter N.. It has meaning as continuous bending reaches geometric boundary curve, TO ESTABLISH housing, wrapping or twisting the sleeve around the reference point. ( This cover provides the manufacture of potassium-hut, house, knafos-Temple ). Or hint leads to outflow, so we have omorriza water. Nu is on the breathing, breathing, rays. Plato says: Of d'af N.Y. THE eiso aisthomenos voice, THE introns Edo onomasen.
The letter O (Xi-DS) derives Of xyo, polish, rub. derivatives hackle, scratch, xylem (THE exesmenon). The concept of dry, dry gives its importance clear, so we Xanthos. The shape of the letter are of the sandwich scraper or rake. The element despite THE xeesthai Meanwhile grafesthai of the other longer. Initially egrafeto as CS, GA, LS.
The letter O(omicron) Semantics from Figure. Examples showing the importance OF omicron as closed circular space enclosed roofed, BUT ALSO WITHIN THE MEANING OF integrated, him the finished, the ready (law, Domos = firm, cesspit, deception in the sense of Fakas, lobe, culvert i.e. tube like.). Its shape is a circle similar to the rounding of the lips when the phoneme is discharged.
The letter P. (ml / m) called from the word mL glycol. It has the meaning of access, access. M pronounced upon labial pressure. Promoion and the same shape, two columns ON WHICH positioned plate as symbols piesos.
The letter P (PG / Euros) called BY flow-Pro verb, Dorian Roma where by Homer occurs with p rather than DC which always produces a Doric assimilation AL = pp. The shape of letter shows flow from head or judge. D phoneme p mimics mainly sound of flowing liquid. The element despite THE flow, liquid gar rings and evmalakton and impulses oil psi.
The letter S. (Sigma) It consists of two peaks, referred to in sigyno = javelin, spear. Or throwing shot produces the air characteristic hissing sound, Whenever or wheezing radical, syrix (musician flute)iron kath'oti lances or akrodoratia was iron. Figure comes from the array of two peaks spears V + V.
The letter T (tee) corresponding upright man notation for height and trunk (Tafs = Great, Teftamidis strong). Plato characterizes as useful seems the attitude. D phoneme tee mimics clicking tool, while figure reminiscent amongst other hammer.
The letter Y (wye) represents receptors for wet or cavities and convexities. indicative cup, lamp, amphora, pregnant, wave, cache etc.. THE MYCENEAN ideogram is the same as Y and meant liquid. And but also water with D. Clearly expresses concave or convex.
The letter F. (phi / leaf sandalwood sandalwood) As its shape Fimou (sfigmou) bridle, muzzle. D Fimos a tray and also the quiver or velothiki, the casing as the Beacon = garment, faskolion, flask knitted vase. Phi mimics each phase and a symbol is two lips blowing or two inflated cheeks(F-ysao, light, F-ysis, F-lox etc.).
The letter X (xi / bulk) FROM word robe, in that the Superintendent foldable cross, Up veil. Af apodidomenai by X ennoiai is predominantly liquid or solid pourable, with reference to figure hourglass which measures the flow of sand is poured. Also X-ronos measured or hourglass, x-PROVIDED the past from the future to the two areas which is sand. Or sand before, was passed and sand where it comes (present in the substance does not exist).
The letter Y (WI / psy) represents the armature of psilon bare or light armored fighters. Ci fine fighting with bows For this y depicts the weapon system (or base to the left). W is subsequently and designed for express CP, STS, FS. Responds with beeps : "Great noise is that or ekfonisis and that wheezing ordination so causing Ti or only Psi, one else, that a time psafei, Being duplicate
». The letter Z (omega) as duplicate omicron, It shows the importance of the latter with emphasis superlative. D omega Ocean = v Text vicinity, round of land. The shape of the letter is widely open omicron with closed mouth, environment completely delimiters and the casing (Oh). And omega belongs downstream and was generated BY Simonidis which join two omicron and ran up to Z. The remaining three letters, THE digamma, THE qoppa AND THE sampi, They were removed THE 403pCh on archonship Efklidou.
ALPHA-BETA-gamma- delta-EPSILON-POSITION-Zeta-HLA-THETA-iota-KAPPA-LAMBDA-MI-NI-XI-OMIKRON-PI-PO-SIGMA-WDD-YPSILON-FI-XI- WI-OMEGA.
AL FA, BH THE GA, ((A))MA AL ((E))L. THE EW conglomerates, F(THE) IGMA, ZH TA, The TA, GH THE iota Palms CA, MA, MH night H, The small, FIRE IGMA TAFY((E))Y groupings, TA The MEGA SOUL.
Al = The intelligible sun
Fa-th = Light
Bn = imperative verb goes
The dative = Article type the Doric,
Ca = Earth (Doric type)
Ama = (adv.) at the same time
El = the visible Sun, is to come
Ey = verb epsomai, Ey-dardised, baked
Clusters = Sludge (substantive), mud, clay
In = imperative verb istimi
Igma = precipitation, distillate
Zn = imperative verb live
H submissive verb am, I
GH = imperative verb set
Iota = the ioga, Egos
Palana = Verb throb (pulsate, revolve)
epithet Pallas- pallousi,rotating (cf.: Pallas Athena)
Da = other type of Ca., earth (cf.:
Damitir, Dimitir, Dimitra = Mother Earth)
Night = overnight
O = which the, that
Phy(the) = Optative verb fyo (grow,
AL, YOU WHO YOU ARE THE LIGHT, COME TO EARTH! AND THE RAYS EL throw SOUSTIN sludge PSINETAI.AS make a precipitation to enable ME TO LIVE, Exist and dwell on earth. LET'S NOT prevail NIGHT THAT IS small and in danger of settling THE BURIAL OF FIRE IN THE SLUDGE Effervescent, AND LET'S DEVELOP THE SOUL, WHO IS THE GREATEST, Most importantly,!
Analysis of the shape and the form of the letters of the Greek alphabet with representational pictorial accurately described as pronunciation notations and the Greek root and words or objects or concepts that represent, leads to association of symbols with Greek language elements. The fact in itself that incorporates the letters of the Greek system in the language of Greek and proves that the letters only the Greek language and the meanings of expressing. Or ingenious discovery WHICH unfortunately ignores or science, although a continuation and completion of forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of the tongue (Cratylus). Dissolves definitively considers the Greek language came from another, since it proved to be the only non-conventional language, or only that which shows a causal relationship between the signifier and signified.
The "Phoenician" in Greek means D ox and called Alef voice value sigma. B denotes hut called Beth, y means camel and called gkimel. So no relationship with sound, Image and FIG BETWEEN symainontos and symainomenou.
Damianos chubby, In his study ( Birth and interpretation of the Greek Bible, Athens 1987) She writes features : "Children are taught that the Greeks borrowed writing from the Phoenicians. How did the Greeks a people so expressive, original, iconolaters, resourceful, it is possible to capture the spoken speech to loans Figures, foreign to his own mental world, its own events and of course completely mechanical ". Greek dialects :
(a)) Ionic – Attica
(b)) the Arcadocypriot
The Ionic – Attic dialect later split in pure Ionic and Attic clean dialekto.Tis latter development is the "common", that was spoken throughout the Hellenistic world.
Modern Greek :
(b)) the Cappadocian
(c)) the Tsakonian
(d)) the katoitaliki.
Apart from these dialects, entire Greece includes numerous local variations of the common Modern Greek, idioms or glossimata. They have such great differences between them, that becomes very difficult concert, as with dialects. The idioms are divided into north and south, with an imaginary line which coincides with the 38th parallel and passing through the Gulf of Corinth, the borders of Attica and Viotia, from the middle of Evia, Aegean continues and ends in the north of Izmir in M. Asia, in accordance with the separation of the linguist C.. Chatzidaki.Ta north differ from the southern dialects in some characteristic features vocals. General, north known for their vocal innovations, while the south is more conservative and also include many ancient words. However, as in so dialects and idioms separation is not always stable, due to various social changes. In modern times it is common to use for most dialects the term "dialect". So, we hear talk of the Cypriot dialect, the Cretan or dialekto.Oles Macedonian dialects and idioms of Modern Greek from the common Hellenistic. The exception is only the Tsakonian, originating from the ancient Doric dialect.
Separating the written word into parts by putting certain symvolon.Ta symbols are called points of punctuation and the following :
(a)) The perfect (.). It serves to mark the end of a period, enclosing a perfect sense and respond to stop the voice. The dot does not enter in books, in inscriptions and headings.
(b)) The semicolon (·). It serves to make less interruption than,what with the dot and more than,what the party.
(c)) Party (,). Used to make a short stop on the inside of a period or to give a chance to breath a long sentence. often used in writing.
(d)) the question mark (;). It marked the end of an interrogative sentence or in brackets with a statement to indicate irony or doubt. We put a semicolon at the end of the lateral interrogative proposal.
(e)) the exclamation (!). then noted by phrases denoting admiration, joy, regret, hope, fear etc.. When the exclamatory phrase begins with the exclamation, then after the exclamation enters comma and the exclamation mark at the end of the sentence. When the exclamation mark is in brackets, declares question or doubt.
(f)) The colon (:). It serves to show the relationship between the next and previous. Note forward from words mentioned by word enclosed in quotes, ahead of an explanation and upon proposal referred adage or proverb.
(g)) The parenthesis (()). Serves to close word or phrase you explain or supplement called.
the) ellipses (…). Marked to show that something shy of hesitation or fear or why is unnecessary to enter once and not be silenced something, but to emphasize more what follows.
(I)) A dash (–). It is greater than the hyphen and noted in parenthesis replacement or party or to indicate the change of the person who speaks.
(j)) the quotes («»). They used to close the words of a person, if so here are just like he said, to distinguish different phrases that are not common in common language or even to separate the words of persons in a dialogue, so replacing the dash. Introductory note also to close books, newspapers, ships etc., unless such securities are printed with different information than the rest of the text.
The perfect, the comma and semicolon are marked out by the quotes, while the exclamation mark and question mark in them, but only when they belong to the text inside the quotes.
Science esfyrilatithike through Greek and our grammar is Greek invention. Our literature is Greek… and almost all words are Greek ". The English language on the orders of Henry E1422, contains only 27000amigeis Greek words and 234000 who have first or second composite Greek word. Base Nomenclator Zoologicus or nomenclature THE zoology to 1994, he had discovered 337.789 animal genera, of which 196000 names were purely Greek. In medical dictionary Dorland1994 UNDER THE 68%, IN THE botany 60% UNDER dictionary D.Kavadia and scientific and technical terminology THE 45% under Mc Graw-Hill Dictionary, are words purely Greek.
What English "Language" ;
• An - Cpd, a
• Master - magister Mastro and maximum
• Art – Άρτιος
• Scope - perspective, intend
• Any – Ένιος
• Hand – Χανδάνω, contain
• Data – donor, granted EC of DME
• Glossary – gloss, glossa, language
• Absolute – ab(s)Absolute lute
• Reality – Res (lats) rezo, do
• Existence, Exist - On + istim, existimi
• Shake – Σείω
• Plan - Planos
• Professor, Profess - Pre + Fimios
• Mode - How, Mede = pattern
• Mix – Μίσγω, mix
• Option – Οπτεύω
• Complex - Clutch
• Differ - differs
• Dance – Δίνησις, dynefo
• Arms – Άρμενον, weapon, equipment
• Imitate – Μιμήτωρ, mime
• Memory – Μέρμηρα, mermirizo = care
• Dictate – Δείκνυμι
• Absent – Άπειμι, abstain
• Mortal - Morrow = Death
• Confess - SynFasko = Witness
• Genesis - Genesis
• Melancholy - Melancholy
• Opportunity, When + Porto - Commission + I can, spend, penetrate diadi experiments and Pirate = Pirate.
Experiment in ancient Athenian land, THE meadow was islet. Transit in order to reach someone on the island called Perama, Passage. Even today there or beyond the area to go to Salamina. Latin goes Portus where the words Port = Drag and Puerto = Port. So far Piraeus became the godfather of all the world ports
(Stravon Geographic A,C59- "Greek Word" Anna Tziropoulou Efstatheiou)
ENGLISH LANGUAGE : A language construct, has no genera, has no endings, kickers. Possessed of empiricism : A graph is said Hey and pronounced A, EI , Oh
"..ean gods synomiloun echrisimopoiousan will be either the Greek language .."
Cicero (on rhetorical)
Today or Greek language undermined by demoticists, But even the demoticist Psycharis writes:
"Language and country is the same. To fight one for the home or for the national language, One is the struggle ". The problem created by the difference between the written language of scholars and language of the people, which began to take shape during the Hellenistic period and was bequeathed to the Byzantine and Modern Greek.
During the Turkish occupation it was necessary to textbooks written in the language of the people, to be understood by oligogrammatous enslaved Greeks. So, scholars such as N. Sophianos (15century.), Maximos of Gallipoli (16th-17th century.), Fragkiskos Skoufos (17century.), Elias Miniatis (18century.), Agios Kosmas of Aetolia (18century.) and too many others wrote in demotic, without missing of course those who wrote in archaic language.
In the late 18th century and early 19th century scholars were divided over language issue· Many wrote in archaic ((A). Gazi, N. Duke, N. Theotokis, P. Kodrikas), while others in the city or close to it (King, (C). Konstantas, (D). Filippides, (D). Katartzis, (J). Vilaras, (A). Christopoulos, (D). Salmon). The case of A. Korai, who proposed a middle ground between words and demotic language: The city holds the types of his words but adds literary endings. Saying that instead of fish opsarion, instead bird Poulios, instead homemaker oikokyrios so on.
The state of the language question remained the same at first metepanastatika years. The 1853 P.. Soutsos preached a return to the ancient Greek language suggesting the use of ancient grammar, the ancient vocabulary and syntax of ancient. The 1888 G.. Psycharis, taught in Paris, released book "My trip", which was a milestone in the course of the language issue. Psycharis preached that the city was established as a written language of the nation. This sermon, despite the reservations that may have been one of the solutions proposed, soon began to bear fruit· the writers gradually began to write in the vernacular language, attempts were made to establish the municipal education and other areas of intellectual life.
The 1917 Venizelos government established municipal primary schools and limited the purist in the last two classes. The 1941 the "grammar of Modern Greek folk" was issued by the State, which compiled expert committee with chairman and rapporteur M. Triantafyllidi. The Committee established the grammatical elements and lexical treasure of oral tradition and adapted the words to the municipality.
After regressions that are directly related to each political developments, the city became the official language of the State 1975 and from the 1976 the gradual compilation of textbooks.
The final blow to Greek LANG gave everything methylfurfural, wherein by decree abolished the Greek language, forcing us to memorize useless grammatical rules and speak one brutal language.
We are receiving the are and not we are, THE sounding and continuously maintains -Th- Replaced by instant -t- Plato was Plato, Sophocles Sophocles was so on.
The argument that must speak the language of the people is the biggest scam. After the people by "violence" remained illiterate, illiterate and uneducated, now tell him how to select the language.
Christians baptize children without to consult them, because those due to age, They can not understand the good of. Doctors vaccinate children without ever ask, because again they did not understand how good it makes them vaccine. But the Greeks how to select the language you speak when you have not seen another. And how is it possible to speak another language after so many wars, hunger, and misery experienced the last century. therefore forced to stay illiterate and uneducated absence were selected. This language learned force majeure and it gave the children of. Instead politicians to restore the correct language, and stick to the course the people, As the baptism and inoculum, They adopted this katanagki language which used a part of the people. Legitimize a product that is where it came from crime. Spanish threatened to withdraw from LP. If for reasons of simplicity abolished tilde FROM Lexie ESPANIA and overcame. However, the Spanish language has a history of several centuries, and no 9000 years at least.
The language was monotonic and with the education and intellectual progress. Which undermine the language, undermines and foundations of copyright of Greece. The great Goethe said: "I heard the gospel to St. Peter in all languages. Or Greek antichise San star that appears inside the night ". How did our ancestors spoke : or Greek language is a language music. His voice rose and fell literally the musical scale. When the Roman citizens first heard in Rome THE Greek articulated by Greek orators, flocked to apothafmasoun people spake as Nightingale. Or Greek language had a superior harmony and melody because just had the vowels and consonants of harmonically arranged sectors melifthongon krasin as to always give sounding ensemble. Rough after smooth, Hard after soft, THE cacophony after OF euphony, THE dysekfora after OF efproforon. In Dionysius Halicarnassus : 'It belongs shall have, al words and rate and metavolin..oste hearing be pleasing. ". The Greeks people erasimolpos synthesized the tongue just as the infinite beauty song, In view logodes member, ie his musical discourse. Plato required pace and melodeon "..osper opsonic on the ground, THE NOT word letters music…»( State 549-B). Whatever Dimokritos had devoted his whole treatise "on euphony and dysphonia letters", While Aristofanes speaks through harmony "amen fathers they delivered". Ptolemy in his musical work writing: "Three adjustable : member, motion physical and word '. Pythagoras preferred the Dorikin dialect for the special harmonic tone and this attribute to seniority. Both Archilochos and Bacchylides and C summarize Aristoxenos: "Greeks by the word sang and through song spoke". So has strict Cicero observes in his book On orator: "Greeks bit missing make lyrics and prose, so much liked everything harmonious sound ". Whatever Ionian Islands nobleman Dion. Romas kateligontas in one gloomy conclusion says: "Such language mellowed spoken by gods ekakopathe in the mouths of humans'. Him therefore natural and genuine undulation efilodoxise restore with some well known contrivances the Ollandos Filologos Erasmus, who was born in Rotterdam THE 1466 and died in Switzerland 70 years after. Eta pronounce as epsilon seed, b,(c),(d), They want hard and sharp as b Latin,d,g, Z as zd and theta defines it as tau aspirated. Also phi THE aspirate by adding (the) Making something like PF, while the (x) translates as a weak kappa. Or our CSCE pronounced as thick breath, reminds (x) and sounds even in composite. Having dissolve th to C-th, Lets us language without HU and treats ypsilon as CY. Or abuse that Erasmus is not random. If one reads an ancient documents by the Erasmus and then Modern Greek, it appears as if no there is no affinity between the ancient and Neohellenic. This is not a coincidence, but justifies persecution, gripper injustice towards Greeks starting from the crusader far. No sympathy towards the modern Greek, They should not be descendants of the ancient Greeks. Today Greeks have managed to speak Greek by way of criminal. So where Isaac VOSSOU IN De viribus rhytmi writes how Primes Greek does not have any relation to the actual pronunciation. Consequently modern Greeks TO toning unrelated to the ancient Greek, where most Europeans only know. Therefore reason after Erasmus, others came Dutch, wanted to correct tones our. Which again not widely known. Isaac VOSSOU claims that the Greek should be highlighted such as Latin. This new wise seems forgotten how Dionysius Thrace and work "The Art of Grammar" which echarise world along with the name and science of grammar: "Ton Estin apichisis concerted voice or anatasin in his acute or omalismon in his heavy or periklasin in his tilde". Porphyry also says: "Ton Estin epitasis or injection or mesotis syllables having euphonium". D Issaak ignored and Herodian PROJECT: "Catholic Prosody",and all Alexandrian scholars, who knows and holding true ripple Greek, assigned the highlight them rules. Yet,s anekdiigites theories of Latin accent of Greek-language adopted around 1700 consistently both in the Netherlands and in England start typonontai THE Greek texts without accents. The tones returned 100 years later when the British Parson proved that everything latinizon intonation does not fit into Greek language.
Generally the Greek words are pronounced the Erasmus incomprehensible shapes as a true connoisseur of Greek, easily understands the truth of the: THE evdokimein becomes e-th-do-and-with-yn, THE settlers translates into E-Po-i-Ko-j, THE weather Ms-L-Fc-I and so. Johan Rouchlin, the largest German scholar regeneration worked free from bias and fanaticism conclude that: correct pronunciation is only that which remained on the lips of the Greeks and not that which was constructed based on assumptions. The English Episkopos Stefanos Vintoniensis THE apigorefse the Erasmus threatening excommunication who will taught. On the Erasmus THE apekiryxan French Hellenist Nt'Arto, or Italian encyclopedia TREKANI, The French, Hungarian Academy, and other Hellenists, Even the Russians, but only in the 19th century. The 1892 As Ollandos Mueller Speaking, says how far the Erasmus accent is ridiculous. To replace fact that pronunciation was founded in Holland in philhellenic collection of the Erasmus.
Jacques says Lakarrier: I know this area, colleges and universities insist teach this ridiculous pronunciation called the Erasmus, who mistreat, distorts, truncates and rips them as His sweet flute sounds of ancient Greek.
IN CONCLUSION : The alphabet is Greek and we resident in the country of this, always esmen Greeks since it appeared as man on earth. We should be we defend the Greek divine language, As homeland.
All Europe's cultural edifice is justifiable child of Greek world. S perpetual travelers Greeks Pelasgians, Aeolians, Achaeans, Minoans, Minyes, They crossed the continent utilizing every seaway. But those who do not see the evidence and truth, They persist in Indo-European theories serving political and economic considerations. This effort or discontinuity of Greek history, It is not random. Unfortunately, this discontinuity is now operating products from neighboring states of Greece (and Lander, Skopje). First Greek whoever adopts THOSE Palms on theories, Indoeuropeans etc., reduces Greek grandfathered on this earth. Hot proponents of these theories, where they find agreements and various eminent Greek scientists, They are northerners and our eastern neighbors. These theories led them subhuman (Skopjans patchwork) They are considered Macedonians, others subhuman (Albanians) They are considered Illyrioi, and other subhuman (Bulgarians) They are considered Thraces. If words and eastern subhumans develop the same public than in previous, it is not excluded to become and progeny of Trojans. Of course this will not take long, after years talking to Turkey 'protourkous ", while or shamelessness of having reached the point to consider Hittites ancestors, thus guaranteeing the historical right to the land of Asia Minor. These theories therefore of Indoeuropeans and Palms, become dangerous for Greeks and the same country. The battle takes place where the last 2 centuries, beyond hardware wars, it is cultural