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Amphipolis.gr | The strange death of Alexander the Great

The strange death of Alexander the Great

One of the greatest historical riddles, worse even than the actual sphinx of Egypt, It is who killed Alexander the Great.

Some lightly want to charge the death of Alexander his companions. To those who say the slightest dereliction of duty during battle, where noted Alexander always claimed a leading role, countless times could result in the death of indomitable commander from Macedonia.

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Kassandros: The usurper of power aside the blood line of Alexander the Great

What was eventually Cassander the usurper ruler who eliminated all the descendants of Alexander the Great and murdered and his mother Olympias same;

He and his father Antipater betrayed the trust of Alexander and ripped it painstakingly Philip II’ had created. The powerful state of Macedonia. And yet this man was the founder of Thessaloniki.

Because there was a successor of Alexander to keep the empire united, and suffered painful though brilliant decline of the Hellenistic period until the conquest by the Romans of all Hellenistic kingdoms and the Greek mainland. When the Greeks will xanaelampe would be another form: As Byzantine Christian Greeks

Ο Κάσσανδρος ( 358 ή 350 – 297 e.g.. ) ήταν ένας από τους Επιγόνους του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου, one of the prwtagwnistikes figures in the wars of the Successors, who reigned in the area of Macedonia. He was the oldest son of Antipater and one of the most remarkable events associated with the reign of the founding of Thessaloniki. He was also founder of the short-lived antipatrid dynasty.

Little had attended the lessons of Aristotle with Alexander and Hephaistion. Cassander not followed Alexander's army, but he stayed in Macedonia alongside Antipater. Later, the commander of the courtyard in Babylon, Cassander was he defended his father against the enemies of their classes and especially the Olympics, of Alexander's mother.

Later, after the death of M. Alexandrou, his father proclaimed his successor in the kingdom of Macedonia in Polyperchon. Cassander took, despite his young age, second place in the hierarchy and the rank of captains, which was remarkable place since the Persians, which was adopted and the M. Alexander in the governance of the State.

Cassander however displeased, as Polyperchon, although sophisticated, It was their relative by blood. Then, according to Diodorus of Sicily, first allied with local allies and then with the king of Egypt, Ptolemy the Savior and Antigonus the One-Eyed, and declared war against its competitors.

Most Greek cities sided with Athens and also delivered. Until the 318 e.g., who defeated his fleet Polyperchon Bosphorus, He had accumulated in the hands of the sovereignty of Macedonia and the rest of Greece. He also made an alliance with Eurydice, the ambitious wife of King Philip III of Macedonia Arrhidaios, and became regent.

However, both she and her husband (which was half-brother of Alexander), killed by Olympics, along with his brother Cassander, Nicanor. Cassander at once marched against Olympias and, he forced her to surrender in Pydna, port at the foot of Olympus, He ordered her death in 316 e.g.. After the devastating wars of successors, kassandros, No.’ number one enemy of the Olympiad, He became master strategist in Macedonia Philip Arrideus with Eurydice allied with him and proclaimed curator of the Macedonian throne. Η Ολυμπιάδα, seeing danger to the interests of the grandson of, Alexander IV, leaves the continent and campaigned in Macedonia.

In conflict with the troops of Eurydice and Arrhidaios, the latter captured by the old queen and killed wild. Ο Κάσσανδρος, busy at that time in Athens, directed against the Olympiad, which takes refuge in the fortified coastal town of Thermaikos Pydna, having with her little Alexander fourth, Roxane, Thessaloniki and many faithful.

After a seven-month siege and after the state of the besieged became unbearable (the enclaved forced to slaughter and eat an elephant gift of Alexander the Great), Olympias capitulated to save grandson. Ο Κάσσανδρος, failing in his promise, put people to the slaughter - in’ others invited angry relatives of the murdered from Olympiada, to stone her, “leaving the corpse atafo rotting”. Today speculated that the tomb is the tomb “Tuba” Makrigialos Pydna, αλλά δεν έχει ακόμα ανασκαφεί

The Roxanne was the beautiful daughter of Oxyartes, the fortress which took Alexander. This area was then the Hellenistic kingdom of Bactria, in an area covering the current Northern Afghanistan and flourished for the next two centuries.

The wedding, according to some sources, It was the result of fierce love of Alexander for the beautiful Roxane, while other sources say that marriage was political expediency. Probably it was a combination of both - and indeed one does not exclude the other.

His son Alexander was born in Babylon in 323 , when he was already dead. So his son, named Alexander D ' ,proclaimed king together with uncle, Arridaio. The Roxane and her son returned to Macedonia and fled to Epirus who lived there Olympiada, the mother of Alexander the Great.

You see he did not feel safe in Macedonia, as there is now the power exercised by the opponents of Alexander and usurpers of the throne of. The Roxane and her son Alexander finally fell victims of brutal exousiomanias Cassander.

About 313, various cities repudiated the alliance they had with Cassander and large parts of the Peloponnese fell into the hands of Antigonus, while wars of the Successors was still ongoing. Cassander forced to enter into negotiations, but this did not lead anywhere.

In the next two years, Ptolemy and Cassander took the initiative again and Antigonus suffered defeats. Autumn 311, signed peace agreement, which provided for cessation of hostilities and recognition of his son M.. Alexandrou, Alexander IV, as king after adulthood.

All thrones and dynasties Member All Time, They are suffering from intrigue and assassinations among the usurpers of the throne. So what was feared Roxanne. When the Olympics died, lost its support and the son of Antipater, Kassandros, who had usurped power in Macedonia, imprisoned at Amphipolis Roxane and her son Alexander, wherein the orders of the 311 e.g.. They murdered.

But their bodies allegedly not buried with appropriate values ​​as they were enemies of Cassander. Certainly possible that prices were basilicas and burial,
as suggested by lions-sphinxes found in Amphipolis, that it is in any event for a royal tomb.

Cassander also convinced Polyperchon that interest was to poison the illegitimate son of Alexander, Hercules, and his mother, a mistress of Alexander of Persia, the Barsine, the 309 e.g.. Already connected to the royal family by taking a wife Thessaloniki, stepbrother M. Alexandrou.
Having an alliance with Seleucus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus, against Antigonus, became after the defeat of the latter and his son Demetrius the 301 e.g.. the Battle of Ipsos, undisputed ruler of Macedonia.

In Greece, he followed his father's policy of, whereby behaved in city states as vassals, not allies, the opposite of what made Antigonus A and Dimitrios Poliorkitis. Cassander was a man with a love for literature, but also violent and ambitious.

Built anew Thebes after leveling from Alexander and built on the site of Thermo Thessaloniki, in honor of his wife. He built a new city, Kassandreia, the ruins of Potidaea, which had destroyed Philip.

He died of dropsy, the 297 e.g.. Pausanias writes that his eldest son, Philip, shortly after his accession, degenerative disease suffered and died. The next son, Antipatros B, He murdered his mother, Thessaloniki, considering that showed special favor to the smaller son, Alexander E. Alexander avenged dethroning Antipater II, although the latter briefly retook the kingdom, some years later. Alexander also was killed by Demetrius the Conqueror, the son of Antigonus.

Because of Cassander Empire founded by Alexander did not have a common reference point, his son Alexander D'.Nai While the Successors may not recognize the authority of, but the direct blood link with the man to whom owed their very existence would force them not to fight against each other, and recognize at least one of subordination of Alexander son.

The glow that radiated Alexander still held after his death. Besides, we never know if his son had some or many of the virtues of his father. Exterminated age 12-13 times.

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GREEK language – Myths collapsed

The science that studies the human language,said Linguistics. By the end of the 19th century was not an independent science, but language issues only mentioned in literature.
Linguistics can be divided into three major sectors:
(a)) General linguistics, which examines the phenomena of live spoken language, the rules under which every phenomenon works in the language and context that have linguistic phenomena to mental functions,
(b)) historical grammar and linguistic history, examining the lesions which exist elements of language with the passage of time,
(c)) comparative linguistics, which examines all the languages ​​that exist on Earth, the classification process, Classification into groups and identifying similarities and differences in.

For the study of languages ​​and their changes during the year linguistics uses various tools of philology, as the voice, grammar, semantics etc..
The importance of linguistic science is enormous. Apart from the clear knowledge that offers, about what language is and how it changed over the centuries, linguistics succeeded in discovering and reading linguistic monuments dating 5.000 years BC. thus brought to the attention of the people whole civilizations that had flourished in prehistoric times.
History of linguistics The first linguistic research, which took the form of etymology, already observed by Homer, who in his epics trying to explain the etymology of several heroes and gods names. After Homer and other writers of antiquity made the same effort in this regard. However, their research was not successful, why not even know their phonetic rules, through which they certify if the etymology were correct or not. Their explanations but posed the first examples of linguistic examination of words.

In classical times the Plato's dialogue "Cratylus" examines a fundamental problem of linguistic science, ie if several words were created "in nature or in law". Certainly the ancient Greeks never reached perfection and profundity of Indian linguists, But were the main founders of linguistic terms, still used today. The Romans began to deal with their language just the first BC. century (CDAP, Flakkos, Quintilian, Priskianos) and in the context of perfect imitation of Greek examples.

Science whose object is to read and study the writing of manuscripts bygone days, said Paleography.
The material on which are the texts examined by the paleography, It is mainly the parchment and paper. WHAT,what is written on papyrus examined by a special science, the papyrology, while the inscriptions on a hard material examined by the epigraphy. The parchment is made of animal skin that receives special treatment and was used from antiquity to the 13th century. The paper gradually supplanted the parchment since its introduction as stationary during the 13th century. and prevails until today.
While every written language has its own paleography, the Greek and Latin paleography of particular interest and have been studied more than any other language.
Greek paleography. Inaugurated the work of a Benedictine monk, Bernard de Monfokon, «Palaeographia Graeca», issued in Paris 1708. They followed several projects, mainly French and German, with which the study methods were introduced and its problems. In Greece the paleography was represented by experts, such as S.. Brilliant, S.. Kougeas, (A). Sigalas, L.. Etc. Greek citizen writing monitored palaeographical from the 4th century. e.g.. chronological framework, the designated, is:
(a)) the era of the Ptolemies
(b)) Roman times as M. Constantine
(c)) The period of the M. Constantine as the year 800 (establishment of minuscule)
(d)) The period 800-1204
(e)) The period from the time Palaiologan as the invention of printing
(f)) the period from the invention of printing, and the following
For the types of writing, divided into :
(a)) Calligraphic or books· m’ this mainly written books and is particularly careful
(b)) demotic, daily use, in which written documents and private letters,
(c)) Writing formal secretariat, ie the royal or highest administrative authorities.
In the history of Greek writing is the 9th century. a.d., because then introduces the minuscule. Almost all surviving literary books from the 4th century. p. X. as the early 9th century. a.d. written in large print, which comes from the writing of ancient inscriptions. The minuscule seem to come from the need of the church to stop Christians to use the ancient majestic letters encountered in the temples of Greek gods. This change of the lettering seems systematized in these years, then adopted as writing books. Since indications are that this project became the Studium monastery at Constantinople, which was a powerful spiritual center of the Byzantine capital in the 9th century. The adoption of minuscule course does not mean the abolition of large print, which survives either initials or in the text and influence as the minuscule. It should be noted that the current Greek writing just comes from the minuscule to the 9th century., in conjunction with the capital's oldest large print.
Another milestone in Greek paleography is the discovery and introduction of the printing press. When Aldus Manutius printed the first Greek books in Venice at the end of the 15th century., received the shapes of the letters from the manuscripts of his time, that's why the writing of these books are almost identical to the script. However, hand many works continued to be written, as the 19th century.

Leading Greek Foreign Scientists wrote about the origin of the alphabet

1. (A). Ζαρντέ στό "The Formation of the Greek people", Paris 1923 SLE 215 It supports the Greek character of the alphabet.
2. As French philosopher Rene Ntysso IN «Journal Asiatique» ,1,357,1905 He has supported how they took Phoenician alphabet from the Greeks : "Ci livable toppled A to form head ox(Vougenis = Dionysos).
3. O Evans THE «scripta minoa Oxford» 1909 clearly states that the Cretans brought the letters in Phenicia.
4. Plutarch "banquet" explains the subject of the alpha, saying how first the Viotia attended and not the Phoenicians.
5. Diodorus in the "book E74" says : "Tais NOT Mousaios dothinai the Father THE letters evresin AND THE OF THE Epics composition prosagorefmeni poetic" – "Palm CDR outset evrein letters, but the types of letters metatheinai only, and either writing principle itself of the majority of people chrisasthe and wherefore tychein the aforesaid common noun ".
6. Polyvios IN "Historically IA,4" says : "Olson Law, CDR custom, oulogos uh Another no amen publicly in kind towards each other (Palms and Greek)».
7. Herman Dillon German literature at the "Pre-Socratic AND IN ARTICLE Orpheus" says:"Greeks not only knew writing, but writing the comments and minds of thin boards ".
8. Argonautica 'verse 44 and 104 'we see that : "Orpheus exelochefse sacred words in Egypt and Libyan.
9. Persson Professor Uppsala 1951, It reached the conclusion that the script is Cretan Origin (linear A).
10. Soulten professor at on Noumantias found that writing was in use in Crete since 2000pch.
11. Ventris and Chadwick (linguists) revealed the Greek character Linear B
12. Whatever Chourmousiadis archaeologists 1994 unearthed wooden plaque engraved with letters of 5260 eg (Daily 15\2\94).
13. Whatever kavadi (Academic) in his work "Prehistoric Archeology" indicates how the alphabet is Greek.
14. The same says and C Arvanitopoulos on "Inscriptional 'project.
15. Whatever DB. Marinated University Professor at the "ancient Cretan culture" project also tells how the alphabet is Greek.
16. O Papagianopoulos Professor epigraphers 1939 project "Alexander the Great and the World Hellenism" Greek ed, Darius page 146 It has supported the alphabet how poorly thought how is Phoenician.
17. Theodore Birch German History Professor at work "Alexander the Great" certifies for the Greek character of the alphabet.
18. Whatever "Tsilmert Murray» English historian and scholar says that the Greeks knew the first writing.
19. The Germanos Schneider at «Der Kretische Ursprung des Phonizichen Alphabets» indicate how Cretan is the alphabet.
20. Theophilus Vauger everything important linguist of Europe considers the Greeks as saying the alphabet creators AS FOLLOWS : "Atopic gar THE foundation of Greek dialect, barbaric finding speaking "-" Grammar Choiroboskos, Foreword, p340 »
21. Vetch supports how welter of words The arguments to the primitive Hebrew alphabet and that of course the letters given by the Greeks to the Jews and not vice versa (Umberto Eco: "The search for the perfect language").
22. The French magazine L 'EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL T,2611, 19/8/2001 says: "Or Hellas owes everything, alphabet, righteous, Democracy, Theatron, Sports, Philosophy, Mathematics, Medicine, Moral, Astronomy, Art…»
23. Prof. Oliver Taplin. Oxford , The Greeks have established literacy in the heart of Western civilization, and is why the word is Greek from the first two Greek letters.
24. Henry Miller (ekd.Pleias) says : "Knossos or bequeathed to the world the most magnificent heritage humanity has ever known alphabet. Knossos was secular WITH true sense of the word. Culture represented dissolved 1500 years ago come to earth as Savior, he bequeathed to the whole Western world the alphabet ".
25. New Webster Dictionary of English Language edition Grolier, New York , The alphabet is Greek
26. Dionysios Zakythinos, The alphabet is Greek
27. Harris Lampidis, The alphabet is Ellinikon
28. Paul Faure IN "or everyday life in Crete Minoan era" Ed Okeanis Athinai 1976 says : "The alphabet is Cretan origin '.
29. Reinach στό "The Celts in the valees-inch-and-the-Danube" λέγει πώς Μυκηναϊκό είναι τό Αλφάβητον.
30. Burrews «The discoveries in Crete» Greek was everything Phoenix.
31. HUMEZ «Alpa to Omega» pseftai s Foinikistai
32. LODS «pre-Christian era, Greek ed, Divris page 109 "Greeks taught Alfaniton palm trees
33. Dussaud «Les Civilisations prehelleniques dans le basin de la mere gee» The Greeks gave the alphabet to the Palm.
34. Ouil Ntyran 'history of civilization' Ell.Ekd Athens 1965 volume A. The alphabet says Duras is Ellinikon.
35. Charles Bairlits "Mysteries from forgotten worlds" Eng,Ed, Tailor, SLE 253. Ellinikon alphabet.
36. Andreas Papagiannopoulos archaeologist epigrafologos, The alphabet says are Greek.
37. Mario Pei Καθηγητής γλωσσολογίας στό Columbia University USA «Funk and Wagnalis New Encyclopedia» 1972 volume 13 SLE 451. The alphabet was Greek.
38. De Saussure «Course in general linguistuics» page 39, Hellinikon is the alphabet.
39. Arvanitopoulos (1874-1938) Home versions Athens 1937 volume 1. Ellinikon alphabet.
40. George Smith Mauritius Schmitt 1872 and 1876 Also according to the Greek origin of the alphabet.
41. Evening Gazette 27\3\87 written by 8000 eg
42. Gov. Acropolis 17\1\87 As ESO destroys archaeological finds, etched performances.
43. Southern Gazette 25\11\86 on Greek Alphabet.
44. Konstantinos Tsatsos University Professor, Philosopher, Lawyer, Poet. The alphabet is Ellinikon.
45. Professor Stassinopoulos, The alphabet is Ellinikon.
46. ILIAD 168 'Vasilefs Proitos sent to the pentheron of a letter from (Cadmus signals).
47. Euripides (Aposp.578) Palamidis,Epicharmus of Kos and Simonidis concocted alphabet.
48. Gkeorgief Bulgarian Academy According to the Greek origin of the alphabet.
49. Jacqueline de Romilly: The eminent ellinistria, struggling for the teaching of ancient Greek texts and happiness which can offer in Europe, as she asserts. Participating in the campaign "A tree for Greece", aimed at reforestation of the burnt August, declares the "Free Press" of Athens: "This is just about solidarity! For what civilization owes to Greece. The Greek culture is the point of departure of all the world's cultures "...
50. Henrietta Walter, French Linguist "in the language we are all Greeks".
51. Herodotus' over time by changing the language, and alter rate of letters ".
52. The historian Douris attributed the letter to Phoenix, tutor of Achilles.
53. Whatever M.Minoide IN of "Calliope" treatise writes: "Pindar is of the opinion that the letters invented by an Athenian named lyrics.
54. S.G. Rembroke in his work (The legacy of Greece, oxford university press 1994) says : "In the palm was offered role intermediaries escaping any information of History. A role that is the carrier of wisdom and culture of the "chosen people towards them uncivilized and municipalities to the Greeks".
55. Damianos chubby 'study ( Birth and interpretation of the Greek Bible, Athens 1987) She writes features : "Children are taught that the Greeks borrowed writing from the Phoenicians. How did the Greeks a people so expressive, original, iconolaters, resourceful, it is possible to capture the spoken speech to loans Figures, foreign to his own mental world, its own events and of course completely mechanical ".
56. Suidas Lemma -Samion municipality- He considers that the letters epinoithisan Samos the Athenians transferred them to the east.
57. "Some remarks NOT Fassi nature of their position par'imin by Hermes Cpd palm foliage written katapemfthinai per mankind".
58. Aristides what orator, As ex'Andrioupoleos of Asia Minor originating THE 2ai.mch writes: "Pass gar cities and all men genera to us and from our advanced diet and voice deviated…Hercules columns…Libya…Bosporus…Syria.. Cilicia, but all the land…and di'imon unanimously fact pass or universe '.
59. Everything Will Durant(1885-1981) philosopher, historian and professor at Columbia University, writes: "Alphabet us came to the west by Kymis". What else do find to convince, not the Americans or Pakistanis that the alphabet is own of, but the Greeks talk, that the alphabet is own of. The 480 Themistocles defeated them palms in Salamina, Their Cimon defeated THE 466 Eurymedon and C Anaxicrates them defeated THE 449 in Cyprus .

The Gentile is first developed writing system for interact and express his thoughts, Images of, ideas etc.. Or view hypothetical, undocumented, unscientific theories accompanied and complemented by unilateral and authoritarian aspect reads the origin of the Greek alphabet from Phoenician letters, THE Phoenician Alphabet, which in essence was never syllabary and alphabet. The only argument of Foinikiston are the words of Herodotus: "And the Palm brought in teaching sectors Greeks and municipalities and letters CDR eonta before ELLIS, Me as dokeei ". The last sentence himself Herodotus makes a reservation. THE doko verb mean think, assume. Also he brought what Herodotus writes letters and not introduced the letters. Expressed vaguely and said of palms : "Over time by changing the language, and alter rate of letters ". Learning Greek words Palms, alter the language. Sicily TO E74 sets: "Tais NOT Mousaios dothinai the Father THE evresin of letters"- and not evresin letters in vague. And indicates that even the so-called Phoenician letters were invention palm, but an adaptation of the Greek letters: "Fassi palms CDR Ex evrein authority, but the types of letters metatheinai only ". Founder of Phenicia Agenor was the father of Phoenix ,THE Kadnou and Europe. The word Phoenix is ​​Ellinikotati and means purple, Red, rooted in murder-foinios-killing.
s Peleseth (Cretans who were called upon Philistines) when they settled areas coastline of NDV Palestine, brought together and the writing, WHICH knew and emimithisan nomadic masses, after which they settled there, esfeteristhisan the name with historical fulfillment. Moreover, they are achieved by Skopjans WITH Macedonia name. Besides the Phoenician name is known to the Greeks. Whatever Daris Iereas of Vulcan Cpd Troas, He wrote on palm leaves oldest Iliad of Homer, which the Aelian says that he saw. The historian Douris attributed the letters on Phoenix, tutor of Achilles. The Phoenicians us say that we found the letters, in fact what had been syllabary. Not have vowels, not echaraxan wooden panels or clay tablets, or pebbles, nor marbles. Adiefkrinisto remains what exactly wrote the Phoenicians. One thing is certain today: not wrote anything. Whatever M.Minoide IN of "Calliope" treatise writes: "Pindar is of the opinion that the letters invented by an Athenian named lyrics. Josephus tried nagnomi how letters invented by an Athenian named lyrics. Josephus sought to demonstrate how palms and Jews were the same origin (perhaps because he was a Jew), but not convinced, because too exaggerated Hebrew events in order to present these people until the oldest civilized. Or Ugarit, ancient city, the ruins of which are located near the city of Latakia (northern Syria) and discovered the 1928. The prosperity of the city is placed in the period from 15th to 12th century. e.g.. Today the area is called Ras Samra. Knowing the history of the city is based on archaeological excavations carried out in the area, by French archaeologist Claude Scheffer Strasbourg University. On tablets clay recorded important events of the city history. It seems that Ugarit was tributary to Egypt originally, and then at Hittites, while trade with the Greeks of Cyprus and Crete were significant, as evidenced by the rich pottery found in the excavations. Are written in cuneiform signs evrethisan use four languages, proof that the city was cosmopolitan center, which flocked Akkadian, Hittites, Greeks from Crete, Mycenae. Thessaly Kypro.Ektos of the four languages ​​in Ugarit used seven different kinds of writing. So that the tale THE FINIKIA give us eat today. A shopping center where gather all civilized peoples, going to be the creation of all civilized people. Not efyire Switzerland or money because today more money goes there, nor Phenicia efyire no alphabet because there epigainon Greeks, Egyptians and Asians. Palms there used a cuneiform formula with 30 points, which was common in some languages ​​to communicate with virtually all visitors. Therein inhabitants they believed IN Baalism and Doug, but because some events in the region seem to confirm interest in the Old Testament (About Elias Imposter etc.), The theory of Palms suited Jews promote and leave no serious scientist to angixei.I second Ugaritic writing had 22 symfonogrammata with which attributed only 22 under the tongue so the second writing can be considered symfonitario. But where is the alphabet ;

Or mikrozoi this theory of Palms, introduced to Europe in a time where he writes as an English classic S.G. Rembroke in his work (The legacy of Greece, oxford university press 1994) says : "In the palm was offered role intermediaries escaping any information of History. A role that is the carrier of wisdom and culture of the "chosen people towards them uncivilized and municipalities to the Greeks". In late Middle Ages, whereby fundamentalism and obscurantism had reached a point, They want to be the daughter of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia as him Ieftha, Deucalion as Ark, Orpheus as Moisi or distortions IN THE Tiresias, THE Faethona as Satan etc.. From the 1599 But with visiting British missionaries to India, where there was a movement of linguistic interest, by national grammar in the comparison of languages. The need presented missionaries to demonstrate or European language (namely Greek or) should de well be originated from some Asian, in order to lead us in the Old Testament and to thank them good Jews who gave us language talking and a good Jew goodness to pistefoume.Oi notices the similarities of language created a climate of interest in many European wise, that, traveling, their studies, and money coming from rich Jews, They found that there are many correspondences between words in European languages ​​and Indian. Where then would become The Phoenician 1798 published in the book of Padua Italian missionary Paulinus a Sauto Bartolomeo «For antiquity and affinity of language zendikis (namely the ancient Persian), Sanskrit (ie ancient Indian) and German ", which caused huge impression. In that a coat hanger will judge Homer this causes no impression. Since comparative research was continued by many. Founder of linguistics is considered Franz BOOP, who in 1816 efyire the common origin of the main European languages ​​and Indian, Armenian, Persian etc.. But what is the common origin ;
The city of Beirut and Beirut, He took its name from Veria daughter Adonidos and Venus. Damascus or current capital of Syria took the onma of Damascus BY son of Hermes and of Alimidis, Arcadia (St.Vyzantios). Ancient Greek colony was Sidon. But to the Trojan times himself Menelaos had visited and King thereof Faidimos OF donated valuable crater. This admits himself Menelaos Telemachus wherein echarise crater this ((d),615-619). Teukros brother of Ajax came in Sidon and having help from King Vilos, ekyriefse Cyprus and built Salamis. Also King of Sidona Falla advises Sarpidona not allied with the Trojans more with Achaious. Eusebius of Caesarea gives everything its inception urban IN LiCl, Head of Eloim (of Gods), the correlation Saturn the Greeks. The dressing has its name from azone son Irakleous. Between 1150-1050 Cretans settled in Palestine. O Mpratsiotis believes that God Dagon was alloy Canaanites and Cretan divinity. Despite Bethlehem found Metropolis Philistine. These per tafois Philistines Found grommet, silver and pottery, demonstrates Mycenaean art. The existence Crete, Palestine is mentioned and from the Old Testament : Zephaniah V4-6 – Joel Chapter C., 6 - Isaiah chapter i, 12 - Ezekiel chapter JV, 16. Even worse for the Jews, Genesis chapter KG3-4 stated how Abraham who has been chief of the Jews, denotes that they are strangers in Palaistini1100pch. Whatever Koumaris professor at the project "Peoples of the East" says that the Hittites were old Asian people, from Aigaiatikis. The Hittites did not belong to Semitic peoples. Resemble European morphology and especially Mediterranean. Loannis Pasa them appears in M. Asia UNDER 2000 BC-derived Embed. As for Phoenix, the name Phoenix FROM Was coming generations Inachou, ancient king of Argos. Eventually not only not found an Alphabet Palms, But even the city founded by the Greeks.
Authors consider the name foinikeia letters, Of red color in which you wrote. Others believe that the name comes from palm leaves where they wrote. After however's Flood Defkalionos, no guarded letters in memory, Except Pelasgon, af'Ellados areas of barbarians planithenton. Other grammarians call the letters clearly Pelasgic. Others say how Cretan letters, how others are ex-tutor of Achilles, Phoenix, but there are others who say how the letters brought Mercury, engraved palm leaves "Some remarks NOT Fassi nature of their position par'imin by Hermes Cpd palm foliage written katapemfthinai per mankind". Others authors say how Sisyphus found letters. Euripidis and Stesichorus insist on Palamidis, while Suidas Lemma -Samion municipality- He considers that the letters epinoithisan Samos the Athenians transferred them to the east. The Paphos inscription on one fountain, or inscription Delphi vessel "Amfitrion m'anethike handles from tilevoaon", or testimony of Homer when referring IN Bellerophon "Grapsas Cpd a plate ptykto thymofthora many", His works Orpheus, or testimony of Dionysius, student of Aristarchus and many others suggest that the Greeks were writing long before the Trojan war, and well before naturally occur in the world Palms. At first the Greeks had 16grammata: (A),(B),(C),(D),(E),(J),K,L.,M,N,THE,P,R,S.,T,computer. Simonides added H,Oh,X,Y and G Palamidis before it was invented I.,Phi,X,(G). If this were true it, Homer THE aware. Some attribute finding Th,Phi,X,Z in Epicharmus of Kos Syracuse, who was a contemporary of Cadmus. "THE Foinikeia were called letters, as fisin..Eteonefs and Menandros, as historian, because Cpd petalois foinikikois egrafonto, The opera kreitton Estin speak, that Phoenician Women THEMSELVES Mind, ie glorified " (Bekker Anecd). Or Greek language also presents normal development :
1. Early stage Eikografiko
2. pictograph
3. syllabary
4. Fthongografiko.

The cuneiform writing at Behistun in western India has never led to the greatness of Greek writings and hostages.
Cyprus and Linear B have already been decoded and are expressed quite clearly the Greek language unbroken. Linear B is an evolution of Linear A(Tsikritsis Linear B ekd.Vikelaias, Even the National Geographic accordance with this development ekd.Ell.t.6,1999) and deciphered by Ventris and Chadwick THE 1952. Relevant signs found O Evans THE 1900 in Crete, and others such as round Eptanese, Central Greece and the Peloponnese.

THE most important in Greek hieroglyph is the Phaistos Disk, It could not be etched but shows fingerprints of small seals and is considered the first step in printing.

Engraved plaques found in the Arkalochori of Crete. Everything supports Evans from the beginning : "How Linear B and syllabic expresses Greek language. Tells how the Phoenicians received the script from the Cretans, which during the 13th century BC colonized the coast of Palestine as Philistines ". Around the same time as Rene Ntysso postulated: "Palms had received proimotata alphabet, despite the Greeks, eutin had formed so EC cretomycenean writing ". Essentially palms received syllabary and For this reason never developed alphabet. Like so they picked and remained. Ie the word DDMS palms understand Didymaion, David and so. Conversely Greek or normal development set resulted in the current writing system, the first and only i.e. alphabet in history. An important element brought by Ventris were as Doric elements had Linear B, positioning time Dorians after Mykinaioys, yielding another "slap" in Indo-European theories and Dorians, The Apaches, or Zulu and others 'Greek' that can come around 1200 e.g..
So always were the Dorians in the Peloponnese and therefore no historian writes not for them. The only descent of writing ancient writers, is or cathode of Herakleidon and recount THERETO, the return of displaced persons from the Peloponnese Heraklion descendants, In progonikin and dorikin-standing PELOPONNISOU (Aristotle, Strabo, Curator, Diodorus). Cathode means homecoming, such return. Descent of the myriad means return, return, repatriation, under Xenofon. Therefore Just say rise and drop in temperature and not the anode and cathode of temperature. The last touch of Foinikiston was whether the Greek alphabet is, The results of font names would have to be were declinable. But the names of the elements' indeclinable eisin, Quasi alpha alpha alpha TD, beta beta beta so on TD. because eisin principalities, al NOT ancient and root things simple and shall be apoikiloi, Quasi or lefkotitis simple Estin and apoikilos…lest directly areas dyschereian these perivallomen and syncheomen them in a variety of settings "(Comm.eis Dion.Thraka Comments Vaticana).

The Greeks wrote documented from the 6th millennium. Kastoria Dispilio his teacher Aristotle University KG Hourmouziadis, found PLATE 5260 e.g., which has been dated to the most modern methods and are at archaeological Athens museum. This plaque was designated first or inscription worldwide. Three years later the curator of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities' A.Sampson "the cave of Cyclops IN Yura of Northern Sporades discovered pottery fragments with the same letters with current alphabet. These pots dated to 4500 e.g.. He himself archaeologists 1995 Milos discovered protocycladic vessels of the instrument of the third millennium, which were engraved letters M,X,N,K,X,P,THE,(E). First O Evans expressed the view that the graphics and alphabet originates in Greek. Whatever "POL" in the American magazine "Archeology" gives signs evrethisan IN Cyclopean wall of Ithaca, Linear A of 2700pch. For example : The oldest Chinese inscriptions him 1450pch, while the oldest Hebrew text is him 700pch. The oldest texts of English dates back to the 8th century AD, the Germans in the 4th century AD(bishop Ulfilas), French belongs to 9th century AD (The Oaths of Strasbourg), of Italians 1150mch (kantilena), Spaniards of the oldest texts date back to the 10-one century AD and Portuguese dates back to the 12th century.
Gortyn was very old town city of Crete. Its name is taken from the hero Gortyna, son of Radamanthys (formerly called Ellotis and Larissa). There is no evidence about whether there was in the Minoan era. Many are however those who consider it as the seat of very old inhabitants of Crete (Hdeck). What is certain is that there seems to already flourishing during the heroic times. Homer (Ile. (B), 646 and Cs. (C), 204) calls it “teichioessan” and mentions among the Cretan cities had reached flourished. The also says in Plato “Laws” of (IV, 708) as prosperous and well-governed city. But several others. Its prosperity lasted, with some fluctuations course, as the 863 m.a.ch.ch. katalithfike which was destroyed by the Saracens.
At the time of Roman occupation Gortyna was the seat of the Roman governor.
The place where was the old town Gortys is located exactly between the present villages and Ten Saints Cathedral, right and left river Mitropoliano (old Litheos) progressing and flows into the Libyan Sea 90 stages, 16 i.e.. kilometers south. 3. In this area, among other findings and found that dodekastili “great sign” mentioned at the beginning and which is better known as “Codex of Gortyna”.
The discovery of the basic part of it is due to the Italian archaeologist Federico Halbherr that found with the guidance (from distance) another great Italian antiquarian, of Domenico Comparetti and considerable on-site assistance of the German Ern. Fabricius. The inscription has been found all together. A small piece that included the 15 first verses of 11 column found, in the middle of the 19th century, two French tourists, G.. Perry and L. Thenon built in’ a watermill village Ten Saints. This part of the inscription was to the scientific community of the time the first hint of the existence of the inscription.
Twenty years later, The Frenchman also B. Haussoulier, found walled in’ a home of the same village again, new part of the inscription: one that includes 15 first verse (but only the left halves of the column 7 and a few letters of the verses 10 – 15 10 column). But the essential discovery of the inscription due to F. Halbherr mentioned above. He systematically excavated the site and found, the 1884, the first four columns of the Code of Gortyna. Following the instructions -because he could not continue to the end of the excavations- the Ern. Fabricius discovered and the remaining parts of the importance of this inscription was discovered when it was considered as the greatest archaeological discovery of the last century. The interpretation of, They say then, that would employ psychologists and lawyers for a generation (Caillemer). But if the matter is not yet as much the imagined the era of discovery, however, it is very high: is the inscription of Gortyna one of the most extensive to date-found Greek inscriptions, text constant and preserved in excellent condition. It consists of twelve columns, each of which includes 55 lyrics (except that only twelfth 35). Initially the label as a whole would include around 630 – 640 lyrics. The gaps, that despite the fullness exhibited when found, one was achieved be completed thanks to the part that Thenon found and handed 1862 the Louvre and the other thanks to the part discovered, as we said above, the Haussoulier the 1879. So far it appears that only about 30 Our lyrics are missing: 15 the column and 10th 15 from 12. Incomplete is also first ten verses of 9 column. The inscription originally placed inside the circular wall of the city court (Paoli). Later, during the Roman era, when the laws contained in the inscription were obsolete, the stones, on which was engraved in red text Code, used, but with the same configuration initially, as building material, for another building, the ruins of which and we find today.
The columns of the inscription height 1,75 Measure and width 0,69 (some 0,67). Their letters are carved fine, audibly, So commensurate’ it and reading it would be easy if there were idioms of the Doric dialect which is written and disasters certainly presents some parts.The alphabet used in this include 19 only letters. ie missing. The letters, X, Phi, X, Y and Z that replace the E, KS, P, CP and O. It also includes the digamma: F.
This interpretation has caused many discussions, Several readings were proposed receiver relatively. There was an old inscription. S.’ This was also the fact that the words were etched boustrophedon, i.e.. from right to left and then from left to right and so on. (It noted that the pillars also of the inscription read starting from the right column and proceeding to the left) and the archaic form (shape) many letters. So at the beginning made them the sign program 3000 years at least. O but Comparetti and Caillemer dropped to make nearly IN century of Pericles, Not to spoil or fashion who wants the Greeks woke up one morning somewhere in the 5th century BC and to have discovered all, without work and past centuries. The difficulties of dating the Code of Gortyna are due to engage in this data and figures from the archaic one hand and on the other juridical institutions highly sophisticated (Caillemer). Argument for those who accept the antiquity of the Code of Gortyna could be the fact that there is nowhere mentioned in the inscription on documents. Certainly when chased by the Code of Gortyna, the writing was found (once the code is written).
In order to reach the Greeks TO CREATE alphabet, They had to start from primitive writings, to result in perfection which we know today. Minoans initially used a kind of writing hieroglyphic. Then they use the Linear ((A)) and the prevalence of Achaeon introduced or Linear ((B)). Decryption Linear B was made by British wireless operator Ventris, confirming that in this era, Knossos spoke the same language is spoken by the Achaeans. Hieroglyphics start building in Crete by the Greeks, because only given rise to the Greek-speaking culture on the island. THE Greek glyphs is self invention and are pictorial and phonetic character. Each Greek hieroglyphic represents an object with phonetic value. The difference of Greek dialects created the difference of rows A and B, which currently appear to represent main dialects the prehistoric Greek area. No wonder we have in Thessaly hieroglyphs or simply linearly with another phonetic value, which refers to the name of the same object in the local dialect. Linear create it to have the linear object representation and not the icon, Because the second wanted to write artistic hand seq time consuming. Or stagnation in research of linear scriptures because no one intentionally or unintentionally not realize that phonetic values ​​follow the language and idioms that every word translation must follow again the local idiom, which, even today spoken in each geographical region of the Greek world with the meanings of each word had in Minoan and Mycenaean. On the occasion of reading and translation of hieroglyphic writing in the thesaurus of Aidonia, the pictures whose publication or Sunday 28/01/96 We understand the manner in which it writes the Greek glyphs and linear. In the performance of sfendolis IN glyph, We had the word sare word comes from Sarira.
In Hesychius word Laconians and means palm industry. Indeed in the inscription we have to woman holds a palm branch. We therefore use of the first syllable of the word with which we call the phoenix with the image to peristanetai this case WITH syllabic sa. Knowing that all scriptures depict the ancient Greek to local dialects, starting to examine the glyphs and by extension syllabic signs A and B. Or attempt impression of what the Greek saw with the eye, leads us to conclude that the hieroglyphs were thousands. Again linked dialects THE syllabic increased, because with the same image many phonetic values ​​attributed.
A syllabic represented by several images said plurality of names and items that begin with the same syllabic. Having richer in language words, We can calculate how much would be the glyphs and syllabic.

Examples :

• MO (gram.V) cow head = MO - schos
• MR (gram.V ) fruit of coriander = CR - Liandris
• KI (g. (B)) plan jug = Su - lIx
• NI ( g. (B) ) plan pout = NI - kylea (pout in Crete)
• I ( ierogl.) pattern nail = H - Larry
• KY (g. (A),(B)) drawing bird thrown = KY - knias is eagle
• Y (g. (A),(B) ) ship rudder draft = Y - value (rudder)
• NAD (ierogl.) ship design NAD = - g
• WHAT ( ierogl. and g. (A),(B)) draft tripod = Tl - env (tripod)

Linear grafi.Kathe script whose signs are linear shapes.
The oldest kind of writing, we find in Greek area, is the Cretan. Crete discovered three writing systems, the hieroglyphic, A linear and linear B. These writing systems used in Crete and throughout Greece, and led to alphabet.
The English archaeologist Arthur Evans (1851-1941) He turned his attention on the island and 1900 began excavations on the hill "head" of Knossos. From excavations came to light a large number of clay tablets with Linear symbols. In linear Minoan this writing Evans distinguished two phases: A linear, which predates, and linear B. The first phase of the linear Minoan writing takes place between the 1750 and of the 1450 e.g., about, while the second phase shown in Crete around 1400 e.g.. Notably signs in Linear A found throughout Crete, and signs with the Linear B only come from Knossos.
The large collection of text in Linear A consists of 150 about clay tablets, found in southern Crete, in today's Holy Trinity. These signs, many of which are minced, It seems to be mainly lists of agricultural products. Other signs in Linear A were Phaistos, Knossos, Paleokastro, Archanes and in other locations in Crete.
The symbols of the linear graph can be divided into four categories:
(a)) Numeric and metric.
(b)) vocals.
(c)) composite.
(d)) ideograms.
The difference and distinction of phonetic symbols and ideograms is not always clear.
For the Linear B. Evans did express the opinion that it was in use only at Knossos and that disappeared after the destruction of the palace in the early 14th century BC. Evans made the hypothesis that Linear B is a kind of "spell royal ', developed by the scribes of the palace and was used only at Knossos. But the theory is disputed, as signs found in Linear B and mainland Greece.
The relationship of the system of linear A and linear B can not be accurately determined, as it is not possible to determine accurately and time started and stopped two writing systems in Crete. Probably both of these writing systems used in parallel for some time. In mainland Greece, particularly in Thebes, Mycenae, Orchomeno, Tiryns, Eleusis and elsewhere, Symbols found on jars, identical to the symbols of Linear B. But clay tablets in Linear B found at Mycenaean palace near Pylos during systematic excavations by Carl Blegen in 1939. These signs of Pylos examined and published 1955 The Emmet Bennet. Understandably, the discovery of inscribed tablets, in Crete, and in mainland Greece, caused huge interest. Many scientists have tried to decipher the texts of these signs, without satisfactory and positive results. but one in which the glory of decryption of the plates in Linear B is the English architect M. Ventris. In Ventris had made a great impression the work of Evans and worked persistently and with great zeal, to decrypt the linear B. The great effort ameiftike. The 1952 published its conclusions, with which proves that the Linear B script is Greek. The script is now called "Mycenaean". But signs that read do not give us a historical document, but all lists of goods and assets that were the rulers and merchants of that era. Therefore, the signs do not give us real historical information.
The points of Linear B, which has high affinity with Cyprus, They can now be divided into two main types:
(a)) ideograms
(b)) syllabic.

The Linear B syllabic script is basically. Several scientists have expressed doubts about the phonetic values, who attributed the Ventris graphics symbols and rules for their reading of texts proposed. But today generally accept the deciphering of Ventris.
It is known that language is not only this value itself and vector values. The decipherment of Linear B by Ventris threw light on the history of ancient Greek culture, that existed in mainland Greece and Crete many centuries before the Homeric era. Although the signs in Linear contain no actual historical information, affirm that this language is Greek and enlighten many parts of the private and social life of the Greeks in the second millennium BC.
The current alphabet is the prevalence of Ionic-Attic. Every Greek city-state had a pecial alphabet. Very small variations OF any alphabet did differ somewhat from the other. Ionic originally 27 letters, Corinthian had 24 letters, Kritikos 21, of Miletus 24, Halkidiki 25. What exactly were the Latins and which now uses the whole world. From Greek alphabet also descended the Etruscan, THE Cyrillic, The ancient Phrygian, of Lycia, THE Lydian, THE ARMENIAN, the cutting, THE GOTHIC, THE ROMANIAN(similar Latina).

Each letter of the Greek alphabet contains a fixed code importance which introduces literally or metaphorically as individual meaning of each word to which it belongs. Severe linguistic and etymological approach have made the Doric and Chatzigiannis. In summary, we learn that :

The letter A.(alpha) as the beginning, growth and (aldainein, do something to increase. The concept of increasing emerges Derivatives Al radical.). The shape of letter illustrates staircase, inception, development authority (Doric consider taking on English). The element despite THE alfo, THE evrisko.efrethi first gar other elements : alfano = evrisko, ktomai and alfi = Ktesios. Their data universe: air, aelios, ether, Rat, blood, als, authority and man. From the word Homer alfesivoiai, s Semites affect THE alfi, alef = Vous WHICH even had phonetic value sigma.

The letter B(beta) reduced to bolus verb, toot, roar the sound of strong wind (Vanchos the purposes of mania fest dummy). Beta can be explained as the occupant- that ascends- THE goes on (After) from the first letter. Figure NOT the letter represents successive mountain with projections and depressions. Reminds histone exploded sails(inflated sails).

The letter C. (Gamma) It is related to the earth (The sound of tools hitting Earth). FROM etymological superfamily ca-calve-Gaia- wedding- generation, or fleshly and mental birth, development or upbringing or culture or treatment of earth or natural objects. The angle is just two synatomenai eftheiai, knee-((a))volumes and (sp)galeion WHICH sliding on the earth causes the sound G..g..

The letter D.(delta) shaped estuaries and Metopi temples. It is related to the concept of the artificial, of forming, His marvelous illustration, the spiritual, conceivably, of overcoming difficulties (instruction-create-dao = learn).
The letter D.(Delta) coming from the linear B directly, Like other. The generated sound is likely to come and the doupon, the sound i.e. EP deltoid ax. Plato in Kratylos speaks by the force "of the delta compression).

The letter E(Epsilon) shown intentions Cpd, from, Exodus, s ff indicates the medium, THE vicinity Whose or expansion, distance from a starting point or reference (I am =, exists in a certain position and what am = come go). Its open shape E paint THE CONCEPTS represents.

The letter Z(zeta) declares THE MEANING OF seethe, bubble, warmed zao / Zeo. The concept of effervescence and of irregular rotational motion dizziness IN and IN zoros fiery, possible. Finally, in the Homeric zoo, discloses play action and momentum. The letter Z analytes in S. and D., Thus p-yrigmos and S-C under. By its shape symbolizes bridging two extremes, zefgnymi.

The letter H (eta) resulting from contraction or antektasi. The (the) ON dialects of ancient corresponds to Doric ((a)), THE Mycenean (eje), Attic (if). Map the Doric and Ionic ((a),the) produces the emphatic and semicolon (ή). Eta in H and, makrofonia alpha. Its shape is mutants of Schemes A and initially LAID DOWN THE daseian breath.

The letter T. (theta) Represents position, the role, placing within a range. Representative and the hall, Thanks, THE house, coziness (throne, desk, thorax, GOD = running on the concept of putting is the approximate.

The letter I (iota) shows the direction of the rectum, of direct, of direction, path toward the point or target (Further work also send =, drop, IEMA = scurry and ithys = straight). Iota ITEM, Despite ion of venomous animals. Gar as how the virus s rectum marches oh peprotai, so and accordingly writing proper Being, iota kalein inixato or of arrows viruses.

The letter K (kappa) indicates the content,that contained (kaptein = scrounge, carts = enclosure, box ). Or etymological hyper kg- and etymological of the family, The CAC as verb, cover the content of the letter Mr. , For the name of which is proposed Cap-fa Kappa (labial p assimilation,f). The shape of letter illustrating palm tensioned closing permissible IN handle. R packed bends and corners, captures the meaning of the cutting and bending, probably ichopoiiton.

The letter L. (Lambda) represents simasiologikos THE etymological hyper Love- covering the smoothing or scraping as the material edge and the result or product of grinding, polishing or shine so become relatives Words : RU = gemstone, lachos = share, lazomai = poach etc.. The shape of the letter is shaped abrasive sharp tool. And L. Plato says: the glotta slidable Meanwhile lambda, named him GFs smooth and this olisthanein AND THE fat and kollodes..Os to the shape of forceps resembles, receive, booty, lafo.
In Herodotus I. 117 illustrates illumination unto all direction

The letter M (uL / muscle) It includes THE hyper (Mar- ex-maiefsi )which has its origination meanings, maternity, using tricks or devises (THE battle). Maieutics used in posting truth learning mode. The name of M.(MU / ml) refers IN speakable with mygmo (With tone muscle) by compressing lip. The shape of the letter is as the breasts of woman and pronounced by closed edges. He has been likened and with two closed edges: Muscle ITEM, TINA is that mygmos or result ekfonisis, mygmos NOT Estin The muscle tone through the nostrils outgoing.

The letter N(Nu / wt) It takes the name from the bites having or pronunciation, but and the show as a conical pointed end, peak where embroiders, hole. The (n) As is typical phoneme of jaw-jaw-Canadian words, CONNECTED with sharp teeth WITH kakammeno angulated wedge-conical shape of the letter N.. It has meaning as continuous bending reaches geometric boundary curve, TO ESTABLISH housing, wrapping or twisting the sleeve around the reference point. ( This cover provides the manufacture of potassium-hut, house, knafos-Temple ). Or hint leads to outflow, so we have omorriza water. Nu is on the breathing, breathing, rays. Plato says: Of d'af N.Y. THE eiso aisthomenos voice, THE introns Edo onomasen.

The letter O (Xi-DS) derives Of xyo, polish, rub. derivatives hackle, scratch, xylem (THE exesmenon). The concept of dry, dry gives its importance clear, so we Xanthos. The shape of the letter are of the sandwich scraper or rake. The element despite THE xeesthai Meanwhile grafesthai of the other longer. Initially egrafeto as CS, GA, LS.

The letter O(omicron) Semantics from Figure. Examples showing the importance OF omicron as closed circular space enclosed roofed, BUT ALSO WITHIN THE MEANING OF integrated, him the finished, the ready (law, Domos = firm, cesspit, deception in the sense of Fakas, lobe, culvert i.e. tube like.). Its shape is a circle similar to the rounding of the lips when the phoneme is discharged.

The letter P. (ml / m) called from the word mL glycol. It has the meaning of access, access. M pronounced upon labial pressure. Promoion and the same shape, two columns ON WHICH positioned plate as symbols piesos.

The letter P (PG / Euros) called BY flow-Pro verb, Dorian Roma where by Homer occurs with p rather than DC which always produces a Doric assimilation AL = pp. The shape of letter shows flow from head or judge. D phoneme p mimics mainly sound of flowing liquid. The element despite THE flow, liquid gar rings and evmalakton and impulses oil psi.

The letter S. (Sigma) It consists of two peaks, referred to in sigyno = javelin, spear. Or throwing shot produces the air characteristic hissing sound, Whenever or wheezing radical, syrix (musician flute)iron kath'oti lances or akrodoratia was iron. Figure comes from the array of two peaks spears V + V.

The letter T (tee) corresponding upright man notation for height and trunk (Tafs = Great, Teftamidis strong). Plato characterizes as useful seems the attitude. D phoneme tee mimics clicking tool, while figure reminiscent amongst other hammer.

The letter Y (wye) represents receptors for wet or cavities and convexities. indicative cup, lamp, amphora, pregnant, wave, cache etc.. THE MYCENEAN ideogram is the same as Y and meant liquid. And but also water with D. Clearly expresses concave or convex.

The letter F. (phi / leaf sandalwood sandalwood) As its shape Fimou (sfigmou) bridle, muzzle. D Fimos a tray and also the quiver or velothiki, the casing as the Beacon = garment, faskolion, flask knitted vase. Phi mimics each phase and a symbol is two lips blowing or two inflated cheeks(F-ysao, light, F-ysis, F-lox etc.).

The letter X (xi / bulk) FROM word robe, in that the Superintendent foldable cross, Up veil. Af apodidomenai by X ennoiai is predominantly liquid or solid pourable, with reference to figure hourglass which measures the flow of sand is poured. Also X-ronos measured or hourglass, x-PROVIDED the past from the future to the two areas which is sand. Or sand before, was passed and sand where it comes (present in the substance does not exist).

The letter Y (WI / psy) represents the armature of psilon bare or light armored fighters. Ci fine fighting with bows For this y depicts the weapon system (or base to the left). W is subsequently and designed for express CP, STS, FS. Responds with beeps : "Great noise is that or ekfonisis and that wheezing ordination so causing Ti or only Psi, one else, that a time psafei, Being duplicate

». The letter Z (omega) as duplicate omicron, It shows the importance of the latter with emphasis superlative. D omega Ocean = v Text vicinity, round of land. The shape of the letter is widely open omicron with closed mouth, environment completely delimiters and the casing (Oh). And omega belongs downstream and was generated BY Simonidis which join two omicron and ran up to Z. The remaining three letters, THE digamma, THE qoppa AND THE sampi, They were removed THE 403pCh on archonship Efklidou.

ALPHA-BETA-gamma- delta-EPSILON-POSITION-Zeta-HLA-THETA-iota-KAPPA-LAMBDA-MI-NI-XI-OMIKRON-PI-PO-SIGMA-WDD-YPSILON-FI-XI- WI-OMEGA.

AL FA, BH THE GA, ((A))MA AL ((E))L. THE EW conglomerates, F(THE) IGMA, ZH TA, The TA, GH THE iota Palms CA, MA, MH night H, The small, FIRE IGMA TAFY((E))Y groupings, TA The MEGA SOUL.

Al = The intelligible sun
Fa-th = Light
Bn = imperative verb goes
(walk, come)
The dative = Article type the Doric,
to the
Ca = Earth (Doric type)
Ama = (adv.) at the same time
El = the visible Sun, is to come
Ey = verb epsomai, Ey-dardised, baked
Clusters = Sludge (substantive), mud, clay
In = imperative verb istimi
Igma = precipitation, distillate
Zn = imperative verb live
H submissive verb am, I
GH = imperative verb set
Iota = the ioga, Egos
Palana = Verb throb (pulsate, revolve)
epithet Pallas- pallousi,rotating (cf.: Pallas Athena)
Da = other type of Ca., earth (cf.:
Damitir, Dimitir, Dimitra = Mother Earth)
Night = overnight
O = which the, that
Phy(the) = Optative verb fyo (grow,
shapes)

AL, YOU WHO YOU ARE THE LIGHT, COME TO EARTH! AND THE RAYS EL throw SOUSTIN sludge PSINETAI.AS make a precipitation to enable ME TO LIVE, Exist and dwell on earth. LET'S NOT prevail NIGHT THAT IS small and in danger of settling THE BURIAL OF FIRE IN THE SLUDGE Effervescent, AND LET'S DEVELOP THE SOUL, WHO IS THE GREATEST, Most importantly,!

Analysis of the shape and the form of the letters of the Greek alphabet with representational pictorial accurately described as pronunciation notations and the Greek root and words or objects or concepts that represent, leads to association of symbols with Greek language elements. The fact in itself that incorporates the letters of the Greek system in the language of Greek and proves that the letters only the Greek language and the meanings of expressing. Or ingenious discovery WHICH unfortunately ignores or science, although a continuation and completion of forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of the tongue (Cratylus). Dissolves definitively considers the Greek language came from another, since it proved to be the only non-conventional language, or only that which shows a causal relationship between the signifier and signified.
The "Phoenician" in Greek means D ox and called Alef voice value sigma. B denotes hut called Beth, y means camel and called gkimel. So no relationship with sound, Image and FIG BETWEEN symainontos and symainomenou.

Damianos chubby, In his study ( Birth and interpretation of the Greek Bible, Athens 1987) She writes features : "Children are taught that the Greeks borrowed writing from the Phoenicians. How did the Greeks a people so expressive, original, iconolaters, resourceful, it is possible to capture the spoken speech to loans Figures, foreign to his own mental world, its own events and of course completely mechanical ". Greek dialects :
(a)) Ionic – Attica
(b)) the Arcadocypriot
(c)) wind
(d)) Dorian
The Ionic – Attic dialect later split in pure Ionic and Attic clean dialekto.Tis latter development is the "common", that was spoken throughout the Hellenistic world.
Modern Greek :
(a)) Pontic
(b)) the Cappadocian
(c)) the Tsakonian
(d)) the katoitaliki.

Apart from these dialects, entire Greece includes numerous local variations of the common Modern Greek, idioms or glossimata. They have such great differences between them, that becomes very difficult concert, as with dialects. The idioms are divided into north and south, with an imaginary line which coincides with the 38th parallel and passing through the Gulf of Corinth, the borders of Attica and Viotia, from the middle of Evia, Aegean continues and ends in the north of Izmir in M. Asia, in accordance with the separation of the linguist C.. Chatzidaki.Ta north differ from the southern dialects in some characteristic features vocals. General, north known for their vocal innovations, while the south is more conservative and also include many ancient words. However, as in so dialects and idioms separation is not always stable, due to various social changes. In modern times it is common to use for most dialects the term "dialect". So, we hear talk of the Cypriot dialect, the Cretan or dialekto.Oles Macedonian dialects and idioms of Modern Greek from the common Hellenistic. The exception is only the Tsakonian, originating from the ancient Doric dialect.
Separating the written word into parts by putting certain symvolon.Ta symbols are called points of punctuation and the following :
(a)) The perfect (.). It serves to mark the end of a period, enclosing a perfect sense and respond to stop the voice. The dot does not enter in books, in inscriptions and headings.
(b)) The semicolon (·). It serves to make less interruption than,what with the dot and more than,what the party.
(c)) Party (,). Used to make a short stop on the inside of a period or to give a chance to breath a long sentence. often used in writing.
(d)) the question mark (;). It marked the end of an interrogative sentence or in brackets with a statement to indicate irony or doubt. We put a semicolon at the end of the lateral interrogative proposal.
(e)) the exclamation (!). then noted by phrases denoting admiration, joy, regret, hope, fear etc.. When the exclamatory phrase begins with the exclamation, then after the exclamation enters comma and the exclamation mark at the end of the sentence. When the exclamation mark is in brackets, declares question or doubt.
(f)) The colon (:). It serves to show the relationship between the next and previous. Note forward from words mentioned by word enclosed in quotes, ahead of an explanation and upon proposal referred adage or proverb.
(g)) The parenthesis (()). Serves to close word or phrase you explain or supplement called.
the) ellipses (…). Marked to show that something shy of hesitation or fear or why is unnecessary to enter once and not be silenced something, but to emphasize more what follows.
(I)) A dash (–). It is greater than the hyphen and noted in parenthesis replacement or party or to indicate the change of the person who speaks.
(j)) the quotes («»). They used to close the words of a person, if so here are just like he said, to distinguish different phrases that are not common in common language or even to separate the words of persons in a dialogue, so replacing the dash. Introductory note also to close books, newspapers, ships etc., unless such securities are printed with different information than the rest of the text.
The perfect, the comma and semicolon are marked out by the quotes, while the exclamation mark and question mark in them, but only when they belong to the text inside the quotes.
Science esfyrilatithike through Greek and our grammar is Greek invention. Our literature is Greek… and almost all words are Greek ". The English language on the orders of Henry E1422, contains only 27000amigeis Greek words and 234000 who have first or second composite Greek word. Base Nomenclator Zoologicus or nomenclature THE zoology to 1994, he had discovered 337.789 animal genera, of which 196000 names were purely Greek. In medical dictionary Dorland1994 UNDER THE 68%, IN THE botany 60% UNDER dictionary D.Kavadia and scientific and technical terminology THE 45% under Mc Graw-Hill Dictionary, are words purely Greek.

What English "Language" ;
• An - Cpd, a
• Master - magister Mastro and maximum
• Art – Άρτιος
• Scope - perspective, intend
• Any – Ένιος
• Hand – Χανδάνω, contain
• Data – donor, granted EC of DME
• Glossary – gloss, glossa, language
• Absolute – ab(s)Absolute lute
• Reality – Res (lats) rezo, do
• Existence, Exist - On + istim, existimi
• Shake – Σείω
• Plan - Planos
• Professor, Profess - Pre + Fimios
• Mode - How, Mede = pattern
• Mix – Μίσγω, mix
• Option – Οπτεύω
• Complex - Clutch
• Differ - differs
• Dance – Δίνησις, dynefo
• Arms – Άρμενον, weapon, equipment
• Imitate – Μιμήτωρ, mime
• Memory – Μέρμηρα, mermirizo = care
• Dictate – Δείκνυμι
• Absent – Άπειμι, abstain
• Mortal - Morrow = Death
• Confess - SynFasko = Witness
• Genesis - Genesis
• Melancholy - Melancholy
• Opportunity, When + Porto - Commission + I can, spend, penetrate diadi experiments and Pirate = Pirate.
Experiment in ancient Athenian land, THE meadow was islet. Transit in order to reach someone on the island called Perama, Passage. Even today there or beyond the area to go to Salamina. Latin goes Portus where the words Port = Drag and Puerto = Port. So far Piraeus became the godfather of all the world ports
(Stravon Geographic A,C59- "Greek Word" Anna Tziropoulou Efstatheiou)

ENGLISH LANGUAGE : A language construct, has no genera, has no endings, kickers. Possessed of empiricism : A graph is said Hey and pronounced A, EI , Oh

"..ean gods synomiloun echrisimopoiousan will be either the Greek language .."
Cicero (on rhetorical)

Today or Greek language undermined by demoticists, But even the demoticist Psycharis writes:

"Language and country is the same. To fight one for the home or for the national language, One is the struggle ". The problem created by the difference between the written language of scholars and language of the people, which began to take shape during the Hellenistic period and was bequeathed to the Byzantine and Modern Greek.
During the Turkish occupation it was necessary to textbooks written in the language of the people, to be understood by oligogrammatous enslaved Greeks. So, scholars such as N. Sophianos (15century.), Maximos of Gallipoli (16th-17th century.), Fragkiskos Skoufos (17century.), Elias Miniatis (18century.), Agios Kosmas of Aetolia (18century.) and too many others wrote in demotic, without missing of course those who wrote in archaic language.
In the late 18th century and early 19th century scholars were divided over language issue· Many wrote in archaic ((A). Gazi, N. Duke, N. Theotokis, P. Kodrikas), while others in the city or close to it (King, (C). Konstantas, (D). Filippides, (D). Katartzis, (J). Vilaras, (A). Christopoulos, (D). Salmon). The case of A. Korai, who proposed a middle ground between words and demotic language: The city holds the types of his words but adds literary endings. Saying that instead of fish opsarion, instead bird Poulios, instead homemaker oikokyrios so on.
The state of the language question remained the same at first metepanastatika years. The 1853 P.. Soutsos preached a return to the ancient Greek language suggesting the use of ancient grammar, the ancient vocabulary and syntax of ancient. The 1888 G.. Psycharis, taught in Paris, released book "My trip", which was a milestone in the course of the language issue. Psycharis preached that the city was established as a written language of the nation. This sermon, despite the reservations that may have been one of the solutions proposed, soon began to bear fruit· the writers gradually began to write in the vernacular language, attempts were made to establish the municipal education and other areas of intellectual life.
The 1917 Venizelos government established municipal primary schools and limited the purist in the last two classes. The 1941 the "grammar of Modern Greek folk" was issued by the State, which compiled expert committee with chairman and rapporteur M. Triantafyllidi. The Committee established the grammatical elements and lexical treasure of oral tradition and adapted the words to the municipality.
After regressions that are directly related to each political developments, the city became the official language of the State 1975 and from the 1976 the gradual compilation of textbooks.

The final blow to Greek LANG gave everything methylfurfural, wherein by decree abolished the Greek language, forcing us to memorize useless grammatical rules and speak one brutal language.
We are receiving the are and not we are, THE sounding and continuously maintains -Th- Replaced by instant -t- Plato was Plato, Sophocles Sophocles was so on.
The argument that must speak the language of the people is the biggest scam. After the people by "violence" remained illiterate, illiterate and uneducated, now tell him how to select the language.
Christians baptize children without to consult them, because those due to age, They can not understand the good of. Doctors vaccinate children without ever ask, because again they did not understand how good it makes them vaccine. But the Greeks how to select the language you speak when you have not seen another. And how is it possible to speak another language after so many wars, hunger, and misery experienced the last century. therefore forced to stay illiterate and uneducated absence were selected. This language learned force majeure and it gave the children of. Instead politicians to restore the correct language, and stick to the course the people, As the baptism and inoculum, They adopted this katanagki language which used a part of the people. Legitimize a product that is where it came from crime. Spanish threatened to withdraw from LP. If for reasons of simplicity abolished tilde FROM Lexie ESPANIA and overcame. However, the Spanish language has a history of several centuries, and no 9000 years at least.

The language was monotonic and with the education and intellectual progress. Which undermine the language, undermines and foundations of copyright of Greece. The great Goethe said: "I heard the gospel to St. Peter in all languages. Or Greek antichise San star that appears inside the night ". How did our ancestors spoke : or Greek language is a language music. His voice rose and fell literally the musical scale. When the Roman citizens first heard in Rome THE Greek articulated by Greek orators, flocked to apothafmasoun people spake as Nightingale. Or Greek language had a superior harmony and melody because just had the vowels and consonants of harmonically arranged sectors melifthongon krasin as to always give sounding ensemble. Rough after smooth, Hard after soft, THE cacophony after OF euphony, THE dysekfora after OF efproforon. In Dionysius Halicarnassus : 'It belongs shall have, al words and rate and metavolin..oste hearing be pleasing. ". The Greeks people erasimolpos synthesized the tongue just as the infinite beauty song, In view logodes member, ie his musical discourse. Plato required pace and melodeon "..osper opsonic on the ground, THE NOT word letters music…»( State 549-B). Whatever Dimokritos had devoted his whole treatise "on euphony and dysphonia letters", While Aristofanes speaks through harmony "amen fathers they delivered". Ptolemy in his musical work writing: "Three adjustable : member, motion physical and word '. Pythagoras preferred the Dorikin dialect for the special harmonic tone and this attribute to seniority. Both Archilochos and Bacchylides and C summarize Aristoxenos: "Greeks by the word sang and through song spoke". So has strict Cicero observes in his book On orator: "Greeks bit missing make lyrics and prose, so much liked everything harmonious sound ". Whatever Ionian Islands nobleman Dion. Romas kateligontas in one gloomy conclusion says: "Such language mellowed spoken by gods ekakopathe in the mouths of humans'. Him therefore natural and genuine undulation efilodoxise restore with some well known contrivances the Ollandos Filologos Erasmus, who was born in Rotterdam THE 1466 and died in Switzerland 70 years after. Eta pronounce as epsilon seed, b,(c),(d), They want hard and sharp as b Latin,d,g, Z as zd and theta defines it as tau aspirated. Also phi THE aspirate by adding (the) Making something like PF, while the (x) translates as a weak kappa. Or our CSCE pronounced as thick breath, reminds (x) and sounds even in composite. Having dissolve th to C-th, Lets us language without HU and treats ypsilon as CY. Or abuse that Erasmus is not random. If one reads an ancient documents by the Erasmus and then Modern Greek, it appears as if no there is no affinity between the ancient and Neohellenic. This is not a coincidence, but justifies persecution, gripper injustice towards Greeks starting from the crusader far. No sympathy towards the modern Greek, They should not be descendants of the ancient Greeks. Today Greeks have managed to speak Greek by way of criminal. So where Isaac VOSSOU IN De viribus rhytmi writes how Primes Greek does not have any relation to the actual pronunciation. Consequently modern Greeks TO toning unrelated to the ancient Greek, where most Europeans only know. Therefore reason after Erasmus, others came Dutch, wanted to correct tones our. Which again not widely known. Isaac VOSSOU claims that the Greek should be highlighted such as Latin. This new wise seems forgotten how Dionysius Thrace and work "The Art of Grammar" which echarise world along with the name and science of grammar: "Ton Estin apichisis concerted voice or anatasin in his acute or omalismon in his heavy or periklasin in his tilde". Porphyry also says: "Ton Estin epitasis or injection or mesotis syllables having euphonium". D Issaak ignored and Herodian PROJECT: "Catholic Prosody",and all Alexandrian scholars, who knows and holding true ripple Greek, assigned the highlight them rules. Yet,s anekdiigites theories of Latin accent of Greek-language adopted around 1700 consistently both in the Netherlands and in England start typonontai THE Greek texts without accents. The tones returned 100 years later when the British Parson proved that everything latinizon intonation does not fit into Greek language.

Generally the Greek words are pronounced the Erasmus incomprehensible shapes as a true connoisseur of Greek, easily understands the truth of the: THE evdokimein becomes e-th-do-and-with-yn, THE settlers translates into E-Po-i-Ko-j, THE weather Ms-L-Fc-I and so. Johan Rouchlin, the largest German scholar regeneration worked free from bias and fanaticism conclude that: correct pronunciation is only that which remained on the lips of the Greeks and not that which was constructed based on assumptions. The English Episkopos Stefanos Vintoniensis THE apigorefse the Erasmus threatening excommunication who will taught. On the Erasmus THE apekiryxan French Hellenist Nt'Arto, or Italian encyclopedia TREKANI, The French, Hungarian Academy, and other Hellenists, Even the Russians, but only in the 19th century. The 1892 As Ollandos Mueller Speaking, says how far the Erasmus accent is ridiculous. To replace fact that pronunciation was founded in Holland in philhellenic collection of the Erasmus.
Jacques says Lakarrier: I know this area, colleges and universities insist teach this ridiculous pronunciation called the Erasmus, who mistreat, distorts, truncates and rips them as His sweet flute sounds of ancient Greek.
IN CONCLUSION : The alphabet is Greek and we resident in the country of this, always esmen Greeks since it appeared as man on earth. We should be we defend the Greek divine language, As homeland.
All Europe's cultural edifice is justifiable child of Greek world. S perpetual travelers Greeks Pelasgians, Aeolians, Achaeans, Minoans, Minyes, They crossed the continent utilizing every seaway. But those who do not see the evidence and truth, They persist in Indo-European theories serving political and economic considerations. This effort or discontinuity of Greek history, It is not random. Unfortunately, this discontinuity is now operating products from neighboring states of Greece (and Lander, Skopje). First Greek whoever adopts THOSE Palms on theories, Indoeuropeans etc., reduces Greek grandfathered on this earth. Hot proponents of these theories, where they find agreements and various eminent Greek scientists, They are northerners and our eastern neighbors. These theories led them subhuman (Skopjans patchwork) They are considered Macedonians, others subhuman (Albanians) They are considered Illyrioi, and other subhuman (Bulgarians) They are considered Thraces. If words and eastern subhumans develop the same public than in previous, it is not excluded to become and progeny of Trojans. Of course this will not take long, after years talking to Turkey 'protourkous ", while or shamelessness of having reached the point to consider Hittites ancestors, thus guaranteeing the historical right to the land of Asia Minor. These theories therefore of Indoeuropeans and Palms, become dangerous for Greeks and the same country. The battle takes place where the last 2 centuries, beyond hardware wars, it is cultural

master-lista.blogspot.gr

The KARYANI PAGGAIOU MUNICIPALITY AND REGION: Few fragments FROM THE long history

Built next to last, western slopes of the Symbol conditions, close Paggaio and the mouth of the river Struma, the Karyani or Karyani, as it is commonly known in modern Greek language, is a village inhabited by Greeks, that the beginnings of history are lost back centuries.

In the area of ​​the village found clear traces of Paleolithic installation, (before 10.000 e.g.), including the Acropolis in the ancient hamlet of Piero Fagrita, located on the hill "Cannon", who rises above and left of Orphani, for anyone who goes there from Galipsos. CONTINUE THE READING

Amphipolis.gr | The language of the ancient Macedonians

The language of the ancient Macedonians

The most important Greek dialects of the Greek peninsula and Asia Minor around 500 e.g..

Dimitri E.. Evangelides

The Greek language, according to the newest scientific opinions((a)), formed in Greece, after the arrival of Proto-Greek, who although assimilated and disappeared gradually their previously established peoples (= Proellines), but influenced culturally and cultural. The Proellines speaking their own languages ​​and therefore clearly influenced the shaping of Greek language. Result of this process((b)) was the first single proto-Greek decay into three dialects between 2200/2100 e.g.. and 1900 e.g.. i.e.. the final installation of Proto-Greeks in a relatively narrow band that included current Epirus and part of N. (D). Illyridos, Western Macedonia and B. (A). part of Thessaly (see. Charter), until the start of the movement of these gender, mainly in southern regions.((c))

Protoell

Initial proto-Greek equality facilities

The dialects they were:

1. A very archaic form of subsequent Ionic-Attica dialectal

2. One also archaic form of so-called West / northwest / continental dialectal (this arose later Dorian Laconia, Crete etc., the dialect of Elis, the Aitoliki, the Neo-Achaean, and dialects of the three major racial groups of Epirus - Thesprotians, Molossos, Chaonia) and

3. The so-called Central Dialect, which is then cleaved in wind (referred to as proto-Wind) and the Arcadian (the subsequent Arkadi-Cypriot).

Completing the picture mention that around 1600 e.g.. a aiolofonon Achaean portion emigrated from Thessaly TO (= Achaia Fthiotis) BA Peloponnese. There, their dialect was showing novelties and is influenced by Arcadian (later Arkadi Cypriot) dialect of central Peloponnese (wherein around 1900 e.g.. They had migrated and settled the Arkadofonoi, coming from the area of ​​today's Western Macedonia). So finally reached our known, the signs with Linear B, dialect of the Mycenaean kingdoms, which was previously reported as Achaean (It should not be confused with the aforementioned Neo-Achaean, a Doric dialect), while today has prevailed in general to call Mycenaean. With the collapse of the Mycenaean world, Mycenaean dialect gradually ceased to be used to permanently disappear around 1150 e.g.. End, the intersection of wind and western elements Dialectology, encountered the Thessaly and the Boeotian dialect.

So what was the linguistic relationship of the ancient Macedonian speech in relation to the above dialects of the Greek language;

Before we look at the answers to this question it should be recalled that the investigations and studies on the Macedonian showed excellent progress over the past thirty years, thus we can now refer to linguistic raw material, from which we can reach specific scientific conclusions.

Scientific however discussions began virtually from the early 19th century with the publication in Leipzig, Germany on a short study by Phi. G.. Stourts titled "On the dialect of the free Macedonian»((d)), aimed to present the views and research on the position of Macedonian as a dialect of the Greek language and mainly by issuing the 1825 of the project (C). O. Myller «About the residence, the origin and the oldest history of the Macedonian people»((e)). Unfortunately the discussion of scientific soon turned to politics and became an endless series of confrontations for the Greek character or not this language.((f))

As observed: «…For several decades there has been intense controversy about the inclusion or non-Macedonian in Greek dialects. The problem was partly due to the inadequacy of the material, early inscriptions mainly, but in exoepistimonikous agents, since the very beginning the controversy was closely dependent on the political and historical developments in the southern Balkans in the 19th and 20th century – even to this day – and territorial claims of the peoples who inhabited the area…».((g))

therefore attempting to answer the question we posed above about the relationship of ancient Macedonian dialect with other Greek dialects, We must clarify that in the past, but until relatively recently, It was difficult a simple and clear answer for lack or even the scarcity of linguistic material, allowing a variety of cases and opinions. These we can classify them into four groups, depending on the position that support:

1. The earliest position accept the view that Macedonian was a mixed language, relative of Illyrian (The position of said G. O. Müller, and Slavs mainly scientists then, as the G. Kazaroff, M. Rostovtzeff, M. Budimir, H. Baric etc.) or Thracian (supported even today by Bulgarian D. Tzanoff).

2. Another position, supported by leading scientists, accepted the Macedonian as independent Indo-European language, akin to the Greek (V. Pisani, I. Russian, G. Mihailov, P. Chantraine, I. bashful, C. D. Buck, E. Schwyzer, Vlad. georgiev, W. W. Tarn and the prominent French linguist Olivier Masson at the beginning of his career).

3. The majority, however, scientists and especially linguists advocated and supported that Macedonian was another Greek dialect (The view expounded by F.. G.. Stourts mentioned above, and the "patriarch" of Greek Linguistics C.. Manos (1848-1941), the late Professor of Linguistics at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Nick. Andrioti, and the N. Kalleris, A. Fick, Otto Hoffmann, F. Solmsen, V. Lesny, F. Geyer, N. G. L. Hammond, A. Toynbee, Ch. Edson and Olivier Masson in mature years).

4. End, We must mention the existence of a previously small portion scientists, who fulfilled a cautious attitude, citing the existence of certain ambiguities and inadequacy of linguistic material was the available time, thus find it impossible to formulating an informed position [Mainly, French linguist Antoine Meillet (1866–1936) and Italoevraios historian Arnaldo Momigliano(1908–1987)] (the).

But even ancient sources were, not only extremely sparse on the issue of the language of the Macedonians, but rather exacerbated the confusion. As aptly and clearly explained this situation:

“…The ancient writers mentioned rather rarely in the very language of the Macedonians. Summing Up (see. last Panayiotou 1992-Kapetanopoulos 1995) we could group the relevant evidence as follows:

(a). For the character of the Macedonian dialect: During the Tito Livio Macedonians, Aitolous and Akarnanes speak the same dialect – similar finding does Strabo for dialect Ipeirots and Macedonians. As we all know, idioms above all equality are in northwestern dialectic group. The testimonials are now confirmed by the dialectical inscriptions and in turn combined with indirect evidence of the sources for the affinity Dorians and Macedonians: by Herodotus (1.56) identifies Dorians and Macedonians – himself (5.20, 5.22, 8.137, 8.138), as Thucydides (2.99.3) and other later sources familiar myth that connects the royal house of Timenidon with Argos and Hercules, information indirectly confirmed by archaeological findings eg. the cataplasm published by Tiberius (1989) […] contrast, genealogical myths of Hesiod and Ellanikou connect the Macedonians with the Aeolian, but so far no major elements reinforcing this tradition.

(b). For the gradual marginalization of the Macedonian dialect: Already in the army of M. Alexander, an interactive set of different origins, the Macedonians expressed in common – dialect used only between Macedonians or in moments of intense emotion. H younger chronologically testimony dialect is the middle of the 1st century BC. and refers to retreat even before this period the Ptolemaic court. The testimony of the sources confirmed by the inscriptions.

(c). For the Macedonian dialect and common: H common spread through the Macedonian conquest and prevailed, without stopping, thanks to the Hellenistic kingdoms. So connected later in the consciousness of some Atticists very closely with the Macedonians, to the extent that the term makedonizein to acquire some of them the meaning 'speak the common’ (e.g.. Athenian, "Deipnosophistai» 3.121f-122a) – for this reason also caused their ironic comments. As evidence of this also the importance of makedonizein can confront Atticists passages, where the same type characterized by hand as "Macedonian" and from one another as a type of "tacky" using the "ignorant" or "younger"…”.((I))

We have already noted that in the last thirty years, the situation changed radically thanks to the Academy of Sciences publications Berlin epigraphic material from the Thessaloniki region (1972) and northern Macedonia (1999), and the Greek-Roman Antiquity Center (K.E.R.A.) from Upper Macedonia (1985) and the region of Veria (1998). Moreover the KERA published three collections of major names from the areas of Veria, of Edessa and expatriate Macedonians.

He clarifies and Professor AUTH. John M. loafer in an excellent article titled "The language of the ancient Macedonians • New data from Pella»((j)):

«For a long time the language of the people speaking Macedonians was discussed and different approaches. By some researchers even, BORZA the American professor and his students, it was considered that all the Greek inscriptions found in the great Touba Vergina belong to relatives of kings, since the royal tombs are. Their language say it is natural that the Greek after themselves scholars argue that the royal family and the higher class only had Hellenized. But this is the case; Obviously this argument would have been forfeited if we were Greek texts belonging to ordinary people and are dated before the time of Alexander the Great and the common Greek, say before the middle of the 4th century. e.g..

D009-1The early cemetery Agora Pella gave us the most important findings. Since the end of the 5th century. e.g.. comes the headstone Xanthos. About an impoverished child. To make the small column was reused in a piece of marble. The inscription on the column writes: XANTHOS / Demetrios / Y AND AMA / CODE SON. Of particular interest here Mother Amades. This name seems to come from the root am- they Homeric AMA-oh verb (arch. = mow) and the Macedonian suffix -dika, remember the broad s name. Observe the normal formation of the Macedonian arriving at a place the. Recent findings even from our Vergina gave three times the name of Philip's mother as Eurydice and not Eurydice. So, while examples of a few years ago were scarce today are growing daily with the discoveries of archaeologists. I remind you two finds from the cemetery of Pella, plucked from the soil recently. This golden leaves with the identity of the dead. In a sheet recorded Igisiska name, instead of Igisiski, the verb lead. I also mention that the dead was a little girl, so it -iski = Igisiski. In another recorded the name of hospitality. Another finding from the cemetery of the Market area belongs to a leaden plate inscribed, ένα katadesmo(k), as say the ancients. It is a major asset of the archaeological research conducted in Macedonia in recent years. This text, In my opinion, can decisively help in the understanding of the Macedonian dialect. As it is currently, unique interactive text Macedonian. The importance of further increases because it is relatively extensive text. This text is ready for publication, only appear, I'm sure that will widely discussed by experts linguists.

The plate was uncovered in a tomb of a humble person. The text presents relations with Attic in drafting. But differs from the Attic-Ionic group the following:

1. A and here there is the secondary, see. eg. Thetis, instead Thetimi, Fuck instead gimai, other anti another, deserted place deserted, bad rather bad.

2. The foreshortening of a and b is a not h, e.g.. When Allan Pasang instead of the other passes, widow instead widows etc..

3. General and other particularities helps us rank the text language in the group of NW Doric Greek course dialects. So that is the Macedonian and she meant when Alexander speaks to soldiers Macedonists…».

Unfortunately, old theories withdrawn difficult thus remains outdated "wisdom" still charged journals, university textbooks and projects, as aptly says Professor Milt. Hatzopoulos, indicating as examples (to avoid would say), the text of Professor P. Krosslant (R. A. Crossland), in the third volume - Part 1, the famous and very reliable otherwise "Ancient History" of the University of Cambridge in Macedonian(l) and the booklet Amerikanoroumanou Professor Eugene Borza(m).

also a typical example and dialektologikoi maps circulating in foreign (but unfortunately in Greek) literature and that restrict Greek dialects in a small segment of Greek space (southern mainland Greece, the islands and the coast of Asia Minor), and show the area of ​​Macedonia, and Epirus, inhabited by speakers of non-Greek dialects!

1 A copy of aeg-map2

Robert Morkot, ed. 1996. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece.

“Penguin Books”, p. 23.

http://www.trentu.ca/faculty/rfitzsimons/AHCL2200Y/LE 04-01.htm

2 A copy of greek_dialects

http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/karten/griech/grdialm.htm

3 A copy of CAH Vol III part1 J. B. Hainsworth

(Cambridge Ancient History Vol. III part 1)

But why were these doubts and controversies about the position of the Macedonian dialect;

As Professor M. explains. Hatzopoulos(n):

«…One reason - perhaps the most important - for such resistance to assimilation of new data and the insistence on outdated theories until even the last years, is the way in which, the 19th century, the scientific debate on the Macedonian dialect and Greek non-character focused on sporadic appearance in Macedonian words and proper names - which otherwise seemed completely Greek - loudly closed pacts [voiced stops] ((b), (d), (c)) instead of the corresponding first CSCE, aichon closed pacts [originally “aspirate” unvoiced stops] (f, (I), x,), expected in other Greek dialects, eg Valakros and Verena rather bald and Ferenika…».

And it continues:

«[…] Since the mid 80s of last century the acceleration of archaeological research in Macedonia and activities of KERA "Macedonia" Program resulted in the presentation of numerous scientific papers and between them by leading linguists (Claude Brixhe, Anna Panayiotou, O. Masson, L. Dubois, Miltiades B.. Hatzopoulos) they used the newer data, which were collected, allowing to go beyond the Gordian knot, who, from the 19th century captured all the discussions surrounding the language of the ancient Macedonians, i.e.. on whether or not it was Greek. So it is no exaggeration to say that from now on the barrier that prevented the identification of the language they spoke, Philip and Alexander the Great was eliminated: The ancient Macedonian was a real and genuine Greek dialect. On this issue, all linguists and scholars actively engaged in this issue now had the same view. But it is equally true that they do not agree on everything.

Two questions still raise serious disagreements:

(a)) How explain the sporadic presence in Macedonian words and names of the notes b, (d), c instead of the corresponding phonemes f, (I), x other Greek dialects;

(b)) What is the dialectical position within the Macedonian Greek;

The first question was investigated several times in recent years, but with different conclusions by Claude Brixhe and Anna Panayotou on one side and O. Masson, L. Dubois and myself on the other.

On the subject of dialectical relations within the Macedonian Greek, apart from the above mentioned scientists, the N. G. L. Hammond and E. Voutiras also made an important contribution. As long, however, dealt, gradually I became convinced that the above two questions are closely linked or rather, that research on dialectal affinities of the Macedonian dialect can provide satisfactory explanations for this question specificity of symphonic system (of this controversial particularity of its consonantal system). […]

So the search for the symphonic system of Macedonian led to the question of Dialectology affinities of this speech which was closely connected. it was normal, The basic disagreement on the Greek or non-Greek character of Macedonian, put aside to a secondary position the question of its mounting within Greek dialects. However not completely neglected. Already, ° F. G. fall, supported by Herodotus, identified the Macedonian as a Doric dialect, while Otto Abel was precise and placed between the northern Doric dialects. Suppose Strabo and Plutarch have provided the necessary arguments to insist that Macedonians did not differ from mainland dialect.

The fundamental work of Otto Hoffmann was what decisively introduced the Wind dimension to the discussion, widely be accepted nowadays (Daskalakis, Toynbee, Goukowsky). The location for the Doric-north-west dimension made a strong restoration thanks to the prestige of J. N. Kalleris followed by G.. Mpampiniotis, the Olivier Masson and other scientists with more chiseled views (A. Tsopanakis, A. I. Thavoris, M. B. Sakellariou and Cl. bridge). Finally the N. G. L. Hammond took the most clear terms, arguing for the parallel existence of two Macedonian dialects: An Upper Macedonia closely associated with the North-Western dialects and another in Lower Macedonia lineage to Thessaly. But a new element, the publication of a comprehensive dialectology text from Macedonia, created a new situation. This text came from the discovery of a cataplasm (see. NB. k) from the first half of the 4th century BC. which was discovered in a tomb at Pella ... "(o).

Αντίγραφο από Pella leaded tablet katadesmos 4th Century

The Pella curse tablet (Archaeological Museum of Pella)

Pellatab

Dimensions: 30 cm X 6 cm
Text

[Thetis]And our Dionysofontos the end and gamon Recording and Allan Tan Pasang Rd-

[naik]sciences and widow and virgin, indeed Thetimas, And parkattithemai Makronas and
[per] daimosi • Crick and I NO dielexaimi and anagnoiin palein anoroxasa,
[toque] Fuck Dionysofonta, erst they were not • non gar Lavos Allan woman but the AWU,
[AWU d]E synkatagirasai Dionysofonti and midemian Allan. Iketis ymo(n) construed-
[am • Phil;]if lamented, profiles demons[the](j), dapina gar
IME friends everything and void • Other
[ID]Emin a store such as non ginitai the[Y]the wrong and bad Thetis apolitai.
[—-]AL[—-]YNM..ESPLIN emos, AWU not [(e)]Y[(d)]aimona and blessed genestai
[—–] THE[.].[—-].[..]..E.E.EO[ ]A.[.]E..MEGE[—]

1. [For the Thetis]us and Dionysofonta ceremony and wedding write the curse, and for (marriage) all other Rd-

2. [naik]s, widows and virgins (with him), but especially for Thetis and assign (this curse) in Makrona and

3. [the] demons. And that only when unearth and unwrap and reread (these words)

4. [then] (only can) marry the Dionysofon and not before. And may not marry another woman, only me

5. and may I grow old with Dionysofonta and any other. Your Iketides am:

6. show compassion to [Kiss;], favorite demons, humbly (I beg you) I left with all my favorite

7. But please keep (this written) for me as not these events so lost Thetis badly

8. and give me bliss and beatitude.

We should note that many "well-wishers" were quick to reduce the enormous importance of this discovery for linguistic research, with arguments ranging from a simple skepticism to non-cases. The professor Milt. Hatzopoulos It is apostomotikos this issue:

"... In my opinion the presence (language) types such dielexaimi, IME, anoroxasa, dapina, which is expected in Macedonian, but completely foreign to North-western dialects, confirmation is decisive for the local origin of the author of the text and allows us to reject the unlikely case that the text was probably the work of a Epirot resident who lived in Pella ... '.(p)
Controversial according

We return to the notorious question of the existence of the Macedonian loudly closed pacts [voiced stops] ((b), (d), (c)) instead of the corresponding first CSCE, aichon closed pacts [originally “aspirate” unvoiced stops] (f, (I), x), existing in other Greek dialects.

In this issue, As we mentioned before, there are two views about the origin of the phenomenon. The first view is supported primarily by Professor Anna Panayiotou:

"... Certain ancient (by Plutarch and after) and Byzantine sources indicate that the Macedonians «stained» B instead of F. (and once D instead of I.) in anthroponymia, in devotional epithets, months of the Macedonian calendar and Macedonian "language" – grammarians and lexicographers maintain that anthroponymio Kiss ([phvla]) e.g.. corresponded to the Macedonian Villa [bvla] (or since the end of the classical period [vvla] according to some researchers, κυρίως Babiniotis 1992). Ayti the difference was considered by most linguists and scholars as absolutely essential, separated not Macedonian from all Greek dialects – Mycenaean Greek including -, because it implies different development pacts in the phonological system of the Macedonian: i.e., according to this theory, the Indo-European sonorous CSCE * bh, *dh, *gh have Trap in Greek in aicha CSCE [ph th kh] (F graphics, Θ, X respectively) having lost their loudness, while the Macedonian Trap are respectively [b d g] (B charts, (D), C respectively), ie have lost their shagginess. According to other scholars, the difference reflects developments within the Greek (apokleistopoiisi), position rather difficult to reconcile with the newest data from the dialect texts (see. last Brixhe & Panayotou 1994, 211 and 216-218, Panagiotou 1997, 202). Perhaps it is more economical to assume that the names that have this feature is language remains one sex who lived in the area and which assimilated linguistically by the Macedonians, it is clear that as early as the 5th century BC. the only traces of this language had been limited to a field eminently conservative, nomenclature. Already in the 4th century BC, when the writing is beginning to spread in Macedonia, in the linguistic sense of Macedonians these names were, without distinction apparently, part of the Macedonian linguistic material and tradition…». (q)

The sex which says Professor A.. Panagiotou are Phrygians, thus accepting the influence of a Phrygian coating (adstratum) the formation of the Macedonian, obviously influenced by the positions of the colleague, French linguist Claude Brixhe, Professor at the University of Nancy, which has carried out considerable research and studies in (dead centuries) Phrygian language.

The professor Milt. Hatzopoulos not, however, accept this assumption and argues that the existence of resonant closed consonants b, (c), d of Macedonian due to the influence of neighboring dialects of Perraivos and Thessaly. It supports a strong argument and persuasion:

"... If we take into account the geographical distribution of types with sonorous closed according to Thessaly, we observe that they are concentrated in the northern part of the region, mainly in Pelasgiotis and Perraivos, with the largest concentration in the second. But in Macedonia these guys are unevenly distributed. They found in considerable numbers and variety - offering testimony to the original vitality of the phenomenon - in three cities or regions: in Vergina, Veria and Pieria. But all of these are located in the distant south-eastern part of Macedonia, in direct contact with the Perraivos. I think this just our geographic distribution provides the solution of the problem. So we are dealing with a phonetic peculiarity of Greek dialect, spoken on both sides of Olympus and is undoubtedly due to a substrate or coating, likely, but not necessarily, Phrygian.

If any doubt remained in relation to the Greek origin of the phenomenon, will dissolve the names of two people: Kevalinos and Vettalos.

It is generally accepted that the first comes from the Indo-European root * ghebh(e)l-. If according to the "Phrygian" case, loss of sonority of "CSCE" did not take place before the anomoiosi of exhaled, the type which should form the Greek dialect of Macedonia should be Gevalinos rather Kevalinos, which is the result of early loss of sonority of "CSCE" after their anomoiosis. The Claude Brixhe and Anna Panayotou, fully realizing the problem, evade accepting (that the phenomenon is due to) "Outdated dialektismo" (“faux dialectisme”).

From the other, the name Vettalos, It is obviously the type of Macedonian national Thettalos, used as a persons name, with possible transfer of bluefin tuna. We also know that the contrast between Atticus Thettalos and Boeoticos Fettalos, It requires an initial * gwhe-.

Given that on one hand the Phrygian, unlike the Greek, the Indo-European lip-palate(*)(labiovelars, i.e.. consonants * kw, *gw, *gwh. Nb. WEU) They lost their palate notes not keep any trace of it, the type which should inherit the Greek dialect of Macedonia, according to the "Phrygian" case, should show an initial * gen-, (i.e.. Gettalos. Nb. WEU), which clearly is not the case.

From the other, type Vettalos, the guy whom the Macedonians pronounced with a strong initial consonant, It can be interpreted in a type of continental Wind dialects, in which, as we know, the 'CSCE' lip-palate followed by a / i / or / e / became simply sonorous labial. The Aeolian type Fettalos, behind the Vettalos, gives us a terminus post quem (latin. "Limit after which ', i.e.. the earliest time that can happen an event. Nb. WEU) the phenomenon of conversion into resounding pact (the voicing phenomenon). This is because if we take into account the spelling of Mycenaean signs, which still maintains a separate series of symbols lip-palate, it is necessary (= mandatory) be dated to the above phenomenon in a post-Mycenaean period, well after the removal of lip-palate, which means the end of the second millennium BC. the earliest and probably in the Greek world. Clearly in the case of formula Vettalos, an ad hoc (latin. thereupon, i.e.. constructed. Nb. WEU) assumption of "obsolescence dialektismou" (“faux dialectisme”) it is unacceptable, due to the late season time where someone hypothetical Macedonian patriot would be tempted to resort to such a form of language for national named Thessalians from time when he was replaced by the type of Attica 'common' Thettalos. Reprocessing of a type Vettalos, sounds supposedly more "Macedonian" (more “Macedonian-sounding”), Our returns on a scientific level knowledge had achieved the 19th century…». (r)

____________________________________________________

(*) The fthongologiko system of the original Proto-Indo-European (TIA) Language included a complex consonants system distinguished in Hailey (labials), dental (dental), gallery (velars), Lip-palate (lip-velars) etc.. The important category of TIA pacts were called closed (stops), which in turn are divided into aicha (unvoiced/voiceless stops), sonorous (voiced stops) and sonorous CSCE (voiced aspirates/aspirated stops). So we have the following classification:

ΠΙΕ ΑΗΧΑ ΗΧΗΡΑ ΗΧΗΡΑ ΔΑΣΕΑ

Χειλικά p b bh

Dental t d dh

Υπερωϊκά k g gh

Χειλο-υπερωϊκά kw gw GWh

As Professor explains (C). Bambiniotis, in Proto-Greek (IP) language, Although the lips gave respective sounds Fr., (b), f, their sounds Dental t, (d), (I), their palate notes of Mr,(c),x. We observe that the sonorous CSCE TIA in IP became aicha CSCE. The lip-palatal sounds gradually disappeared and evolved in the respective chelating, dental or palatal, depending on the vowel that followed. For example, the resonant shaggy phoneme gwh converted into F if a follower or, in i follow if e or i and x if followed th. (s)

conclusions

The Macedonian belonged to the West / Northwest / Continental ancient dialects as distinct dialect with its own peculiarities and idioms and was the vernacular of the majority of the inhabitants of the Macedonian Kingdom. But in certain areas of Lower Macedonia, especially those neighboring the Thessaly, residents spoke an archaic dialect wind, residue of the original equipment of Proto-Aeolians, and newer influences from neighboring tribes aiolofona, including Perevians, the Ainians, and Thessalians, with their mixed dialect aiolodoriki. By the end of the 6th century BC. about, It ceased to be used as a colloquial and survived only in place names, months and persons. The existence of these two dialectical forms resulted in the formation of different concepts in ancient writers and the wording of conflicting views showing the Macedonians sometimes as Dorians (e.g.. Herodotus) and sometimes as aiolofonous (e.g.. Hesiod, Hellanicus).

An accurate and extremely convincing historical explanation of this phenomenon has been formulated by Professor Milt. Hatzopoulos:

"... In the three brothers Temenid, the mythical founders of the Macedonian Kingdom according to Herodotus, since ancient times there was the suspicion that they had not come from the Peloponnesian Argos, but from Argos Orestikon Upper Macedonia, and therefore the Argeadians name was given not only to the royal dynasty, but throughout the clan followed three brothers in the adventure of the conquest of Lower Macedonia. Knowing that Orestes belonged to Molossiki group, It is easily understood how, the significant and very prestigious elite of the new Kingdom, imposed her own (North-west, NB. WEU) dialect, while the ancient Aeolian dialect - the existence of which had given rise to some ancient, but younger authors to consider aiolofonous Macedonians - downgraded to the status of a vernacular substrate (the old Aeolic dialect relegated to the status of a substratum patois), some characteristics of which […] They survived only in the form of minimum residue, generally marginalized, with the exception of certain names sites, personal names and names of months, which had been established by tradition…».(k)

WEU

NOTES
((a)) See. about: M. Garašanin: C.A.H. Too.. III part 1, SLE. 142 – Cambridge, 1982. J. P. Mallory: In Search of the INDO-EUROPEANS, SLE. 69 – London, 1991. M. Sakellariou: Greek Nation History, Tom. A pp. 364-365 - Athena, 1972. (A). – Phi. Chrestides (ed.): "History of the Greek language: From its beginnings to late antiquity " – Thessaloniki, 2001, and the most recent and katatopistikotato David W. Anthony: The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World σσ. 368-369- Princeton N. J. 2007
((b)) See. the effect of different linguistic substrates (substratum) and coatings (adstratum) the formation and development of languages ​​in the classical work of James M. Anderson: Structural Aspects of Language Change σσ. 89-95 – London, 1973
((c)) See. M. Sakellariou: IE. ibid. SLE. SS. 365-366
((d)) F. G. fall, Macedonian dialect liber, Leipzig, 1808
((e)) G. O. Müller, About the residence, the origin and the early history of the Macedonian people, Berlin, 1825
((f)) Miltiades Hatzopoulos: The speech of the ancient Macedonians, in the light of recent epigraphic discoveries – VI International Symposium on Ancient Macedonia, Thessaloniki, 1999
((g)) See. Anna Panayiotou: The position of the Macedonian – From the “History of the Greek language: From early to late antiquity” – EDS. A.-F. Christidis, SLE. 319-325. Thessaloniki, 2001 - Greek language centre & Institute Of Modern Greek Studies [Manolis Triantafyllides Foundation].
(the) See. Details of the above in Miltiades Hatzopoulos: The speech of the ancient Macedonians ό.π.
((I)) See. (A). Panagiotou: The position of the Macedonian ibid.
((j)) The whole is the Internet published version at: http://abnet.agrino.org/htmls/D/D009.html)
(k) A common method in ancient Greece to achieve a purpose (low educational level and intellectual people) with magical acts and sentences were the
cataplasm (= Magic ties). Curses or erotic invocations were written mainly in lead plates (cheap and durable material, although they have found plates of precious metals), which wrapped in a cylinder and pierced through and through with a nail (nailing). Then they threw cataplasm in graves or wells that come into direct contact with the spirits of the underworld.
(l) See. R. A. Crossland: “The Language of the Macedonians” σελίδες 843-847, στο Τhe Cambridge Ancient History – Vol. III, part 1 (2nd Edition 1982, Reprinted 1990).
(m) E. N. Stock Exchange: Before Alexander – Constructions of Early Macedonia (1999)
(n) See. Miltiades Hatzopoulos: The speech of the ancient Macedonians ό.π.
(o) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.
(p) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.
(q) See. Anna Panayiotou: The position of the Macedonian – “History of the Greek language: From early to late antiquity” ibid.
(r) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.
(s) See. (C). Mpampiniotis: "Brief Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics and History of Greek Language", SS. 65-66 - Athena 1977
(k) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.

First published in the third volume / issue of the magazine "New Hermes the Scholar" (September to December 2011)

The language of the ancient Macedonians

The most important Greek dialects of Greek Peninsula

and Asia Minor around 500 e.g..

The language of the ancient Macedonians

Dimitri E.. Evangelides

The Greek language, according to the newest scientific opinions((a)), formed in Greece, after the arrival of Proto-Greek, who although assimilated and disappeared gradually their previously established peoples (= Proellines), but influenced culturally and cultural. The Proellines speaking their own languages ​​and therefore clearly influenced the shaping of Greek language. Result of this process((b)) was the first single proto-Greek decay into three dialects between 2200/2100 e.g.. and 1900 e.g.. i.e.. the final installation of Proto-Greeks in a relatively narrow band that included current Epirus and part of N. (D). Illyridos, Western Macedonia and B. (A). part of Thessaly (see. Charter), until the start of the movement of these gender, mainly in southern regions.((c))

Initial proto-Greek equality facilities

The dialects they were:

1. A very archaic form of subsequent Ionic-Attica dialectal

2. One also archaic form of so-called West / northwest / continental dialectal (this arose later Dorian Laconia, Crete etc., the dialect of Elis, the Aitoliki, the Neo-Achaean, and dialects of the three major racial groups of Epirus - Thesprotians, Molossos, Chaonia) and

3. The so-called Central Dialect, which is then cleaved in wind (referred to as proto-Wind) and the Arcadian (the subsequent Arkadi-Cypriot).

Completing the picture mention that around 1600 e.g.. a aiolofonon Achaean portion emigrated from Thessaly TO (= Achaia Fthiotis) BA Peloponnese. There, their dialect was showing novelties and is influenced by Arcadian (later Arkadi Cypriot) dialect of central Peloponnese (wherein around 1900 e.g.. They had migrated and settled the Arkadofonoi, coming from the area of ​​today's Western Macedonia). So finally reached our known, the signs with Linear B, dialect of the Mycenaean kingdoms, which was previously reported as Achaean (It should not be confused with the aforementioned Neo-Achaean, a Doric dialect), while today has prevailed in general to call Mycenaean. With the collapse of the Mycenaean world, Mycenaean dialect gradually ceased to be used to permanently disappear around 1150 e.g.. End, the intersection of wind and western elements Dialectology, encountered the Thessaly and the Boeotian dialect.

So what was the linguistic relationship of the ancient Macedonian speech in relation to the above dialects of the Greek language;

Before we look at the answers to this question it should be recalled that the investigations and studies on the Macedonian showed excellent progress over the past thirty years, thus we can now refer to linguistic raw material, from which we can reach specific scientific conclusions.

Scientific however discussions began virtually from the early 19th century with the publication in Leipzig, Germany on a short study by Phi. G.. Stourts titled "On the dialect of the free Macedonian»((d)), aimed to present the views and research on the position of Macedonian as a dialect of the Greek language and mainly by issuing the 1825 of the project (C). O. Myller «About the residence, the origin and the oldest history of the Macedonian people»((e)). Unfortunately the discussion of scientific soon turned to politics and became an endless series of confrontations for the Greek character or not this language.((f))

As observed: «…For several decades there has been intense controversy about the inclusion or non-Macedonian in Greek dialects. The problem was partly due to the inadequacy of the material, early inscriptions mainly, but in exoepistimonikous agents, since the very beginning the controversy was closely dependent on the political and historical developments in the southern Balkans in the 19th and 20th century – even to this day – and territorial claims of the peoples who inhabited the area…».((g))

therefore attempting to answer the question we posed above about the relationship of ancient Macedonian dialect with other Greek dialects, We must clarify that in the past, but until relatively recently, It was difficult a simple and clear answer for lack or even the scarcity of linguistic material, allowing a variety of cases and opinions. These we can classify them into four groups, depending on the position that support:

1. The earliest position accept the view that Macedonian was a mixed language, relative of Illyrian (The position of said G. O. Müller, and Slavs mainly scientists then, as the G. Kazaroff, M. Rostovtzeff, M. Budimir, H. Baric etc.) or Thracian (supported even today by Bulgarian D. Tzanoff).

2. Another position, supported by leading scientists, accepted the Macedonian as independent Indo-European language, akin to the Greek (V. Pisani, I. Russian, G. Mihailov, P. Chantraine, I. bashful, C. D. Buck, E. Schwyzer, Vlad. georgiev, W. W. Tarn and the prominent French linguist Olivier Masson at the beginning of his career).

3. The majority, however, scientists and especially linguists advocated and supported that Macedonian was another Greek dialect (The view expounded by F.. G.. Stourts mentioned above, and the "patriarch" of Greek Linguistics C.. Manos (1848-1941), the late Professor of Linguistics at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Nick. Andrioti, and the N. Kalleris, A. Fick, Otto Hoffmann, F. Solmsen, V. Lesny, F. Geyer, N. G. L. Hammond, A. Toynbee, Ch. Edson and Olivier Masson in mature years).

4. End, We must mention the existence of a previously small portion scientists, who fulfilled a cautious attitude, citing the existence of certain ambiguities and inadequacy of linguistic material was the available time, thus find it impossible to formulating an informed position [Mainly, French linguist Antoine Meillet (1866–1936) and Italoevraios historian Arnaldo Momigliano(1908–1987)] (the).

But even ancient sources were, not only extremely sparse on the issue of the language of the Macedonians, but rather exacerbated the confusion. As aptly and clearly explained this situation:

“…The ancient writers mentioned rather rarely in the very language of the Macedonians. Summing Up (see. last Panayiotou 1992-Kapetanopoulos 1995) we could group the relevant evidence as follows:

(a). For the character of the Macedonian dialect: During the Tito Livio Macedonians, Aitolous and Akarnanes speak the same dialect – similar finding does Strabo for dialect Ipeirots and Macedonians. As we all know, idioms above all equality are in northwestern dialectic group. The testimonials are now confirmed by the dialectical inscriptions and in turn combined with indirect evidence of the sources for the affinity Dorians and Macedonians: by Herodotus (1.56) identifies Dorians and Macedonians – himself (5.20, 5.22, 8.137, 8.138), as Thucydides (2.99.3) and other later sources familiar myth that connects the royal house of Timenidon with Argos and Hercules, information indirectly confirmed by archaeological findings eg. the cataplasm published by Tiberius (1989) […] contrast, genealogical myths of Hesiod and Ellanikou connect the Macedonians with the Aeolian, but so far no major elements reinforcing this tradition.

(b). For the gradual marginalization of the Macedonian dialect: Already in the army of M. Alexander, an interactive set of different origins, the Macedonians expressed in common – dialect used only between Macedonians or in moments of intense emotion. H younger chronologically testimony dialect is the middle of the 1st century BC. and refers to retreat even before this period the Ptolemaic court. The testimony of the sources confirmed by the inscriptions.

(c). For the Macedonian dialect and common: H common spread through the Macedonian conquest and prevailed, without stopping, thanks to the Hellenistic kingdoms. So connected later in the consciousness of some Atticists very closely with the Macedonians, to the extent that the term makedonizein to acquire some of them the meaning 'speak the common’ (e.g.. Athenian, "Deipnosophistai» 3.121f-122a) – for this reason also caused their ironic comments. As evidence of this also the importance of makedonizein can confront Atticists passages, where the same type characterized by hand as "Macedonian" and from one another as a type of "tacky" using the "ignorant" or "younger"…”.((I))

We have already noted that in the last thirty years, the situation changed radically thanks to the Academy of Sciences publications Berlin epigraphic material from the Thessaloniki region (1972) and northern Macedonia (1999), and the Greek-Roman Antiquity Center (K.E.R.A.) from Upper Macedonia (1985) and the region of Veria (1998). Moreover the KERA published three collections of major names from the areas of Veria, of Edessa and expatriate Macedonians.

He clarifies and Professor AUTH. John M. loafer in an excellent article titled "The language of the ancient Macedonians • New data from Pella»((j)):

«For a long time the language of the people speaking Macedonians was discussed and different approaches. By some researchers even, BORZA the American professor and his students, it was considered that all the Greek inscriptions found in the great Touba Vergina belong to relatives of kings, since the royal tombs are. Their language say it is natural that the Greek after themselves scholars argue that the royal family and the higher class only had Hellenized. But this is the case; Obviously this argument would have been forfeited if we were Greek texts belonging to ordinary people and are dated before the time of Alexander the Great and the common Greek, say before the middle of the 4th century. e.g..

The early cemetery Agora Pella gave us the most important findings. Since the end of the 5th century. e.g.. comes the headstone Xanthos. About an impoverished child. To make the small column was reused in a piece of marble. The inscription on the column writes: XANTHOS / Demetrios / Y AND AMA / CODE SON. Of particular interest here Mother Amades. This name seems to come from the root am- they Homeric AMA-oh verb (arch. = mow) and the Macedonian suffix -dika, remember the broad s name. Observe the normal formation of the Macedonian arriving at a place the. Recent findings even from our Vergina gave three times the name of Philip's mother as Eurydice and not Eurydice. So, while examples of a few years ago were scarce today are growing daily with the discoveries of archaeologists. I remind you two finds from the cemetery of Pella, plucked from the soil recently. This golden leaves with the identity of the dead. In a sheet recorded Igisiska name, instead of Igisiski, the verb lead. I also mention that the dead was a little girl, so it -iski = Igisiski. In another recorded the name of hospitality. Another finding from the cemetery of the Market area belongs to a leaden plate inscribed, ένα katadesmo(k), as say the ancients. It is a major asset of the archaeological research conducted in Macedonia in recent years. This text, In my opinion, can decisively help in the understanding of the Macedonian dialect. As it is currently, unique interactive text Macedonian. The importance of further increases because it is relatively extensive text. This text is ready for publication, only appear, I'm sure that will widely discussed by experts linguists.

The plate was uncovered in a tomb of a humble person. The text presents relations with Attic in drafting. But differs from the Attic-Ionic group the following:

1. A and here there is the secondary, see. eg. Thetis, instead Thetimi, Fuck instead gimai, other anti another, deserted place deserted, bad rather bad.

2. The foreshortening of a and b is a not h, e.g.. When Allan Pasang instead of the other passes, widow instead widows etc..

3. General and other particularities helps us rank the text language in the group of NW Doric Greek course dialects. So that is the Macedonian and she meant when Alexander speaks to soldiers Macedonists…».

Unfortunately, old theories withdrawn difficult thus remains outdated "wisdom" still charged journals, university textbooks and projects, as aptly says Professor Milt. Hatzopoulos, indicating as examples (to avoid would say), the text of Professor P. Krosslant (R. A. Crossland), in the third volume - Part 1, the famous and very reliable otherwise "Ancient History" of the University of Cambridge in Macedonian(l) and the booklet Amerikanoroumanou Professor Eugene Borza(m).

also a typical example and dialektologikoi maps circulating in foreign (but unfortunately in Greek) literature and that restrict Greek dialects in a small segment of Greek space (southern mainland Greece, the islands and the coast of Asia Minor), and show the area of ​​Macedonia, and Epirus, inhabited by speakers of non-Greek dialects!

Robert Morkot, ed. 1996. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece.

“Penguin Books”, p. 23.

http://www.trentu.ca/faculty/rfitzsimons/AHCL2200Y/LE 04-01.htm

http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/karten/griech/grdialm.htm

(Cambridge Ancient History Vol. III part 1)

But why were these doubts and controversies about the position of the Macedonian dialect;

As Professor M. explains. Hatzopoulos(n):

«…One reason - perhaps the most important - for such resistance to assimilation of new data and the insistence on outdated theories until even the last years, is the way in which, the 19th century, the scientific debate on the Macedonian dialect and Greek non-character focused on sporadic appearance in Macedonian words and proper names - which otherwise seemed completely Greek - loudly closed pacts [voiced stops] ((b), (d), (c)) instead of the corresponding first CSCE, aichon closed pacts [originally “aspirate” unvoiced stops] (f, (I), x,), expected in other Greek dialects, eg Valakros and Verena rather bald and Ferenika…».

And it continues:

«[…] Since the mid 80s of last century the acceleration of archaeological research in Macedonia and activities of KERA "Macedonia" Program resulted in the presentation of numerous scientific papers and between them by leading linguists (Claude Brixhe, Anna Panayiotou, O. Masson, L. Dubois, Miltiades B.. Hatzopoulos) they used the newer data, which were collected, allowing to go beyond the Gordian knot, who, from the 19th century captured all the discussions surrounding the language of the ancient Macedonians, i.e.. on whether or not it was Greek. So it is no exaggeration to say that from now on the barrier that prevented the identification of the language they spoke, Philip and Alexander the Great was eliminated: The ancient Macedonian was a real and genuine Greek dialect. On this issue, all linguists and scholars actively engaged in this issue now had the same view. But it is equally true that they do not agree on everything.

Two questions still raise serious disagreements:

(a)) How explain the sporadic presence in Macedonian words and names of the notes b, (d), c instead of the corresponding phonemes f, (I), x other Greek dialects;

(b)) What is the dialectical position within the Macedonian Greek;

The first question was investigated several times in recent years, but with different conclusions by Claude Brixhe and Anna Panayotou on one side and O. Masson, L. Dubois and myself on the other.

On the subject of dialectical relations within the Macedonian Greek, apart from the above mentioned scientists, the N. G. L. Hammond and E. Voutiras also made an important contribution. As long, however, dealt, gradually I became convinced that the above two questions are closely linked or rather, that research on dialectal affinities of the Macedonian dialect can provide satisfactory explanations for this question specificity of symphonic system (of this controversial particularity of its consonantal system). […]

So the search for the symphonic system of Macedonian led to the question of Dialectology affinities of this speech which was closely connected. it was normal, The basic disagreement on the Greek or non-Greek character of Macedonian, put aside to a secondary position the question of its mounting within Greek dialects. However not completely neglected. Already, ° F. G. fall, supported by Herodotus, identified the Macedonian as a Doric dialect, while Otto Abel was precise and placed between the northern Doric dialects. Suppose Strabo and Plutarch have provided the necessary arguments to insist that Macedonians did not differ from mainland dialect.

The fundamental work of Otto Hoffmann was what decisively introduced the Wind dimension to the discussion, widely be accepted nowadays (Daskalakis, Toynbee, Goukowsky). The location for the Doric-north-west dimension made a strong restoration thanks to the prestige of J. N. Kalleris followed by G.. Mpampiniotis, the Olivier Masson and other scientists with more chiseled views (A. Tsopanakis, A. I. Thavoris, M. B. Sakellariou and Cl. bridge). Finally the N. G. L. Hammond took the most clear terms, arguing for the parallel existence of two Macedonian dialects: An Upper Macedonia closely associated with the North-Western dialects and another in Lower Macedonia lineage to Thessaly. But a new element, the publication of a comprehensive dialectology text from Macedonia, created a new situation. This text came from the discovery of a cataplasm (see. NB. k) from the first half of the 4th century BC. which was discovered in a tomb at Pella ... "(o).

The Pella curse tablet

(Archaeological Museum of Pella)

Dimensions: 30 cm X 6 cm

Text

[Thetis]And our Dionysofontos the end and gamon Recording and Allan Tan Pasang Rd-

[naik]sciences and widow and virgin, indeed Thetimas, And parkattithemai Makronas and
[per] daimosi • Crick and I NO dielexaimi and anagnoiin palein anoroxasa,
[toque] Fuck Dionysofonta, erst they were not • non gar Lavos Allan woman but the AWU,
[AWU d]E synkatagirasai Dionysofonti and midemian Allan. Iketis ymo(n) construed-
[am • Phil;]if lamented, profiles demons[the](j), dapina gar
IME friends everything and void • Other
[ID]Emin a store such as non ginitai the[Y]the wrong and bad Thetis apolitai.
[—-]AL[—-]YNM..ESPLIN emos, AWU not [(e)]Y[(d)]aimona and blessed genestai
[—–] THE[.].[—-].[..]..E.E.EO[ ]A.[.]E..MEGE[—]

1. [For the Thetis]us and Dionysofonta ceremony and wedding write the curse, and for (marriage) all other Rd-

2. [naik]s, widows and virgins (with him), but especially for Thetis and assign (this curse) in Makrona and

3. [the] demons. And that only when unearth and unwrap and reread (these words)

4. [then] (only can) marry the Dionysofon and not before. And may not marry another woman, only me

5. and may I grow old with Dionysofonta and any other. Your Iketides am:

6. show compassion to [Kiss;], favorite demons, humbly (I beg you) I left with all my favorite

7. But please keep (this written) for me as not these events so lost Thetis badly

8. and give me bliss and beatitude.

We should note that many "well-wishers" were quick to reduce the enormous importance of this discovery for linguistic research, with arguments ranging from a simple skepticism to non-cases. The professor Milt. Hatzopoulos It is apostomotikos this issue:

"... In my opinion the presence (language) types such dielexaimi, IME, anoroxasa, dapina, which is expected in Macedonian, but completely foreign to North-western dialects, confirmation is decisive for the local origin of the author of the text and allows us to reject the unlikely case that the text was probably the work of a Epirot resident who lived in Pella ... '.(p)
Controversial according

We return to the notorious question of the existence of the Macedonian loudly closed pacts [voiced stops] ((b), (d), (c)) instead of the corresponding first CSCE, aichon closed pacts [originally “aspirate” unvoiced stops] (f, (I), x), existing in other Greek dialects.

In this issue, As we mentioned before, there are two views about the origin of the phenomenon. The first view is supported primarily by Professor Anna Panayiotou:

"... Certain ancient (by Plutarch and after) and Byzantine sources indicate that the Macedonians «stained» B instead of F. (and once D instead of I.) in anthroponymia, in devotional epithets, months of the Macedonian calendar and Macedonian "language" – grammarians and lexicographers maintain that anthroponymio Kiss ([phvla]) e.g.. corresponded to the Macedonian Villa [bvla] (or since the end of the classical period [vvla] according to some researchers, κυρίως Babiniotis 1992). Ayti the difference was considered by most linguists and scholars as absolutely essential, separated not Macedonian from all Greek dialects – Mycenaean Greek including -, because it implies different development pacts in the phonological system of the Macedonian: i.e., according to this theory, the Indo-European sonorous CSCE * bh, *dh, *gh have Trap in Greek in aicha CSCE [ph th kh] (F graphics, Θ, X respectively) having lost their loudness, while the Macedonian Trap are respectively [b d g] (B charts, (D), C respectively), ie have lost their shagginess. According to other scholars, the difference reflects developments within the Greek (apokleistopoiisi), position rather difficult to reconcile with the newest data from the dialect texts (see. last Brixhe & Panayotou 1994, 211 and 216-218, Panagiotou 1997, 202). Perhaps it is more economical to assume that the names that have this feature is language remains one sex who lived in the area and which assimilated linguistically by the Macedonians, it is clear that as early as the 5th century BC. the only traces of this language had been limited to a field eminently conservative, nomenclature. Already in the 4th century BC, when the writing is beginning to spread in Macedonia, in the linguistic sense of Macedonians these names were, without distinction apparently, part of the Macedonian linguistic material and tradition…». (q)

The sex which says Professor A.. Panagiotou are Phrygians, thus accepting the influence of a Phrygian coating (adstratum) the formation of the Macedonian, obviously influenced by the positions of the colleague, French linguist Claude Brixhe, Professor at the University of Nancy, which has carried out considerable research and studies in (dead centuries) Phrygian language.

The professor Milt. Hatzopoulos not, however, accept this assumption and argues that the existence of resonant closed consonants b, (c), d of Macedonian due to the influence of neighboring dialects of Perraivos and Thessaly. It supports a strong argument and persuasion:

"... If we take into account the geographical distribution of types with sonorous closed according to Thessaly, we observe that they are concentrated in the northern part of the region, mainly in Pelasgiotis and Perraivos, with the largest concentration in the second. But in Macedonia these guys are unevenly distributed. They found in considerable numbers and variety - offering testimony to the original vitality of the phenomenon - in three cities or regions: in Vergina, Veria and Pieria. But all of these are located in the distant south-eastern part of Macedonia, in direct contact with the Perraivos. I think this just our geographic distribution provides the solution of the problem. So we are dealing with a phonetic peculiarity of Greek dialect, spoken on both sides of Olympus and is undoubtedly due to a substrate or coating, likely, but not necessarily, Phrygian.

If any doubt remained in relation to the Greek origin of the phenomenon, will dissolve the names of two people: Kevalinos and Vettalos.

It is generally accepted that the first comes from the Indo-European root * ghebh(e)l-. If according to the "Phrygian" case, loss of sonority of "CSCE" did not take place before the anomoiosi of exhaled, the type which should form the Greek dialect of Macedonia should be Gevalinos rather Kevalinos, which is the result of early loss of sonority of "CSCE" after their anomoiosis. The Claude Brixhe and Anna Panayotou, fully realizing the problem, evade accepting (that the phenomenon is due to) "Outdated dialektismo" (“faux dialectisme”).

From the other, the name Vettalos, It is obviously the type of Macedonian national Thettalos, used as a persons name, with possible transfer of bluefin tuna. We also know that the contrast between Atticus Thettalos and Boeoticos Fettalos, It requires an initial * gwhe-.

Given that on one hand the Phrygian, unlike the Greek, the Indo-European lip-palate(*)(labiovelars, i.e.. consonants * kw, *gw, *gwh. Nb. WEU) They lost their palate notes not keep any trace of it, the type which should inherit the Greek dialect of Macedonia, according to the "Phrygian" case, should show an initial * gen-, (i.e.. Gettalos. Nb. WEU), which clearly is not the case.

From the other, type Vettalos, the guy whom the Macedonians pronounced with a strong initial consonant, It can be interpreted in a type of continental Wind dialects, in which, as we know, the 'CSCE' lip-palate followed by a / i / or / e / became simply sonorous labial. The Aeolian type Fettalos, behind the Vettalos, gives us a terminus post quem (latin. "Limit after which ', i.e.. the earliest time that can happen an event. Nb. WEU) the phenomenon of conversion into resounding pact (the voicing phenomenon). This is because if we take into account the spelling of Mycenaean signs, which still maintains a separate series of symbols lip-palate, it is necessary (= mandatory) be dated to the above phenomenon in a post-Mycenaean period, well after the removal of lip-palate, which means the end of the second millennium BC. the earliest and probably in the Greek world. Clearly in the case of formula Vettalos, an ad hoc (latin. thereupon, i.e.. constructed. Nb. WEU) assumption of "obsolescence dialektismou" (“faux dialectisme”) it is unacceptable, due to the late season time where someone hypothetical Macedonian patriot would be tempted to resort to such a form of language for national named Thessalians from time when he was replaced by the type of Attica 'common' Thettalos. Reprocessing of a type Vettalos, sounds supposedly more "Macedonian" (more “Macedonian-sounding”), Our returns on a scientific level knowledge had achieved the 19th century…». (r)

____________________________________________________

(*) The fthongologiko system of the original Proto-Indo-European (TIA) Language included a complex consonants system distinguished in Hailey (labials), dental (dental), gallery (velars), Lip-palate (lip-velars) etc.. The important category of TIA pacts were called closed (stops), which in turn are divided into aicha (unvoiced/voiceless stops), sonorous (voiced stops) and sonorous CSCE (voiced aspirates/aspirated stops). So we have the following classification:

ΠΙΕ ΑΗΧΑ ΗΧΗΡΑ ΗΧΗΡΑ ΔΑΣΕΑ

Χειλικά p b bh

Dental t d dh

Υπερωϊκά k g gh

Χειλο-υπερωϊκά kw gw GWh

As Professor explains (C). Bambiniotis, in Proto-Greek (IP) language, Although the lips gave respective sounds Fr., (b), f, their sounds Dental t, (d), (I), their palate notes of Mr,(c),x. We observe that the sonorous CSCE TIA in IP became aicha CSCE. The lip-palatal sounds gradually disappeared and evolved in the respective chelating, dental or palatal, depending on the vowel that followed. For example, the resonant shaggy phoneme gwh converted into F if a follower or, in i follow if e or i and x if followed th. (s)

conclusions

The Macedonian belonged to the West / Northwest / Continental ancient dialects as distinct dialect with its own peculiarities and idioms and was the vernacular of the majority of the inhabitants of the Macedonian Kingdom. But in certain areas of Lower Macedonia, especially those neighboring the Thessaly, residents spoke an archaic dialect wind, residue of the original equipment of Proto-Aeolians, and newer influences from neighboring tribes aiolofona, including Perevians, the Ainians, and Thessalians, with their mixed dialect aiolodoriki. By the end of the 6th century BC. about, It ceased to be used as a colloquial and survived only in place names, months and persons. The existence of these two dialectical forms resulted in the formation of different concepts in ancient writers and the wording of conflicting views showing the Macedonians sometimes as Dorians (e.g.. Herodotus) and sometimes as aiolofonous (e.g.. Hesiod, Hellanicus).

An accurate and extremely convincing historical explanation of this phenomenon has been formulated by Professor Milt. Hatzopoulos:

"... In the three brothers Temenid, the mythical founders of the Macedonian Kingdom according to Herodotus, since ancient times there was the suspicion that they had not come from the Peloponnesian Argos, but from Argos Orestikon Upper Macedonia, and therefore the Argeadians name was given not only to the royal dynasty, but throughout the clan followed three brothers in the adventure of the conquest of Lower Macedonia. Knowing that Orestes belonged to Molossiki group, It is easily understood how, the significant and very prestigious elite of the new Kingdom, imposed her own (North-west, NB. WEU) dialect, while the ancient Aeolian dialect - the existence of which had given rise to some ancient, but younger authors to consider aiolofonous Macedonians - downgraded to the status of a vernacular substrate (the old Aeolic dialect relegated to the status of a substratum patois), some characteristics of which […] They survived only in the form of minimum residue, generally marginalized, with the exception of certain names sites, personal names and names of months, which had been established by tradition…».(k)

WEU

NOTES
((a)) See. about: M. Garašanin: C.A.H. Too.. III part 1, SLE. 142 – Cambridge, 1982. J. P. Mallory: In Search of the INDO-EUROPEANS, SLE. 69 – London, 1991. M. Sakellariou: Greek Nation History, Tom. A pp. 364-365 - Athena, 1972. (A). – Phi. Chrestides (ed.): "History of the Greek language: From its beginnings to late antiquity " – Thessaloniki, 2001, and the most recent and katatopistikotato David W. Anthony: The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World σσ. 368-369- Princeton N. J. 2007

((b)) See. the effect of different linguistic substrates (substratum) and coatings (adstratum) the formation and development of languages ​​in the classical work of James M. Anderson: Structural Aspects of Language Change σσ. 89-95 – London, 1973

((c)) See. M. Sakellariou: IE. ibid. SLE. SS. 365-366

((d)) F. G. fall, Macedonian dialect liber, Leipzig, 1808

((e)) G. O. Müller, About the residence, the origin and the early history of the Macedonian people, Berlin, 1825

((f)) Miltiades Hatzopoulos: The speech of the ancient Macedonians, in the light of recent epigraphic discoveries – VI International Symposium on Ancient Macedonia, Thessaloniki, 1999

((g)) See. Anna Panayiotou: The position of the Macedonian – From the “History of the Greek language: From early to late antiquity” – EDS. A.-F. Christidis, SLE. 319-325. Thessaloniki, 2001 - Greek language centre & Institute Of Modern Greek Studies [Manolis Triantafyllides Foundation].

(the) See. Details of the above in Miltiades Hatzopoulos: The speech of the ancient Macedonians ό.π.

((I)) See. (A). Panagiotou: The position of the Macedonian ibid.

((j)) The whole is the Internet published version at: http://abnet.agrino.org/htmls/D/D009.html)

(k) A common method in ancient Greece to achieve a purpose (low educational level and intellectual people) with magical acts and sentences were the cataplasm (= Magic ties). Curses or erotic invocations were written mainly in lead plates (cheap and durable material, although they have found plates of precious metals), which wrapped in a cylinder and pierced through and through with a nail (nailing). Then they threw cataplasm in graves or wells that come into direct contact with the spirits of the underworld.

(l) See. R. A. Crossland: “The Language of the Macedonians” σελίδες 843-847, στο Τhe Cambridge Ancient History – Vol. III, part 1 (2nd Edition 1982, Reprinted 1990).

(m) E. N. Stock Exchange: Before Alexander – Constructions of Early Macedonia (1999)

(n) See. Miltiades Hatzopoulos: The speech of the ancient Macedonians ό.π.

(o) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.

(p) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.

(q) See. Anna Panayiotou: The position of the Macedonian – “History of the Greek language: From early to late antiquity” ibid.

(r) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.

(s) See. (C). Mpampiniotis: "Brief Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics and History of Greek Language", SS. 65-66 - Athena 1977

(k) See. M. Hatzopoulos: The speech ... ibid.

First published in the third volume / issue of the magazine "New Hermes the Scholar" (September to December 2011)

The language of the ancient Macedonians

Dimitri E.. Evangelides

The Greek language, according to the newest scientific opinions((a)), formed in Greece, after the arrival of Proto-Greek, who although assimilated and disappeared gradually their previously established peoples (= Proellines), but influenced culturally and cultural. The Proellines speaking their own languages ​​and therefore clearly influenced the shaping of Greek language. Result of this process((b)) was the first single proto-Greek decay into three dialects between 2200/2100 e.g.. and 1900 e.g.. i.e.. the final installation of Proto-Greeks in a relatively narrow band that included current Epirus and part of N. (D). Illyridos, Western Macedonia and B. (A). part of Thessaly (see. Charter), until the start of the movement of these gender, mainly in southern regions.((c))

 

Initial proto-Greek equality facilities

 

The dialects they were:

  1. A very archaic form of subsequent Ionic-Attica dialectal
  2. One also archaic form of so-called West / northwest / continental dialectal (this arose later Dorian Laconia, Crete etc., the dialect of Elis, the Aitoliki, the Neo-Achaean, and dialects of the three major racial groups of Epirus - Thesprotians, Molossos, Chaonia) and
  3. The so-called Central Dialect, which is then cleaved in wind (referred to as proto-Wind) and the Arcadian (the subsequent Arkadi-Cypriot).