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Aleksanders byen stiftelser

Alexander
Alexander

Alexander‘S biograf Plutark av Chaeronea stater som Aleksander stort grunnlagt ikke mindre enn sytti byene, som var viktige sentra for de greske kulturer i Østen. Av disse fundamentene, vismannen av Chaeronea innebærer, den Makedonsk erobrer endret karakter av hans orientalske motiver fra barbarer til siviliserte mennesker.

Dette i overdrevet. Så langt vi vet, Alexander stiftet noen tjue byene: de virkelige greske byene, poleis, som Plutark må ha hatt i tankene, de faste militære garnisoner eller katoikiai, og de midlertidige militære bosetninger, phrouria. Andre byer ble rett og slett skar eller bare omdøpt.

  1. Alexandrupolis: grunnlagt i 340 ved Kronprins. Dette var en veldig gresk by, bygget blant Maedians, en stamme på bredden av Strymon. Det må ha vært et sted i nabolaget av moderne Sandanski i Bulgaria.
  2. Alexandria i Troas: en by i nærheten Troy, grunnlagt i løpet av våren 334. Det kan ha blitt grunnlagt av en av Alexanders etterfølgere.
  3. Alexandria av Latmus: en by i Caria, kanskje grunnlagt som en garnison eller militær oppgjør vinteren 333. Sannsynligvis, Det ble grunnlagt av en av etterfølgerne av Alexander, som heter det til den tidligere kongen.
  4. Alexandria nær Issus: Sannsynligvis en permanent garnison der veteraner slaget ved Issos kunne begynne et nytt liv, sammen med lokale innbyggere. Moderne Iskenderun i Tyrkia.
  5. Dekk: repopulated med greske emigranter og innfødte i 332/331, sammen med en permanent makedonske garnison.
  6. Gaza: repopulated med europeiske utvandrere og innfødte i 331, sammen med en permanent makedonske garnison.
  7. Alexandria: området ble valgt i januar 330; byen ble grunnlagt på 7 April. Dette var en helt gresk-makedonske byen, selv om det var også en innfødt kvartal og en jødisk kvartal. Jødene og innfødte var annenrangs borgere (tekst).
  8. Alexandria i Aria: kanskje, Arian hovedstaden Artacoana ble repopulated med innfødte og makedonske veteraner i september 330. Det var trolig ment som en permanent garnison. Alternativt, Dette var en helt ny by. Moderne Herat i Afghanistan.
  9. Prophthasia i drangy: den Drangian hovedstaden Phrada var bare omdøpt i oktober 330; “Prophthasia” midler “Forventning”. Moderne farah i Afghanistan.
  10. Alexandria i Arachosia: den Arachosian hovedstaden Kapisa ble repopulated med innfødte og makedonske veteraner vinteren 330/329. It was a permanent garrison. Modern Kandahâr in Afghanistan, which still bears Alexander’s name (derived from Iskandariya, the Arabic and Persian rendering of “Alexander”).
  11. Alexandria in the Caucasus: den Gandarian capital Kapiša-kaniš was repopulated with 4,000 natives and 3,000 Greek and Macedonian veterans in March 329. It was a permanent garrison or a Greek city, although many settlers felt that it was a punitive colony. Modern Chârikâr near Kabul in Afghanistan.
  12. Alexandria Eschatê: founded in the Summer of 329 as a permanent garrison on the Jaxartes (Syrdar’ya). Settled with Macedonian and Greek veterans and native serfs. Modern Khodzent in Tajikistan.
  13. Alexandria på den Oxus: refoundation of a Persian city, settled with Greek and Iranian veterans and native serfs. Probably modern Ai Khanum in Afghanistan. Probably founded in the Spring of 328.
  14. Six cities north of the Oxus. Populated with native prisoners of war who served as serfs for the Macedonian soldiers. Meant as permanent garrisons, together forming a kind of wall against the northern tribes, den Sacae. One of these cities may be identical to modern Termez in Uzbekistan.
  15. Alexandria i Margiana: refoundation of a Persian city in the oasis of Mary in modern Turkmenistan. Settled with Macedonian, Greek and Iranian veterans and native serfs.
  16. Arigaeum: the Aspasian capital was repopulated with natives and Macedonian veterans in the Spring of 326. It was a permanent garrison. Modern Nawagai in Pakistan. In the neighborhood were several temporary military settlements: Bazira, Ora, og Massaga.
  17. Nikea og Bucephala: twin foundation of permanent garrisons on opposite banks of the Hydaspes (Jhelum), founded in May 326 on the battle field. Settled with Greek, Makedonsk, and Iranian veterans and natives. Modern Jhelum in Pakistan? The towns had large dockyards, which suggests that they were meant as a center commerce.
  18. Alexandria on the Hyphasis: founded in July 326 on the eastern border of Alexander’s empire. Settled with veterans of unknown origin.
  19. Alexandria on the Indus: founded in February 325 on the confluence of the Indus og Acesines (Chenab), probably on the site of an older, Persian settlement. Settled with Thracian veterans and natives. Uch in Pakistan. It had large dockyards, which suggests that it was meant as a center commerce.
  20. Another town on the Indus: grunnlagt i løpet av våren 325 among the Indian Sogdians. Probably a temporary military station north of Rohri.
  21. Patala (“naval base”) eller Xylinepolis (“wooden city”): temporary military settlement, founded in July 325 at the place of an earlier, Indian town. Vacated after September 325. Modern Bahmanabad, 75 kilometers north-east of Hyderabad.
  22. Rhambacia: a town among the Oreitians that was fortified by Hephaestion og Leonnatus in the Autumn of 325. If it was meant as a permanent garrison, it was soon vacated. Modern Bela in Pakistan.
  23. Alexandria in Carmania: if this city was founded by Alexander (and not by Seleucus), it must have been a permanent garrison founded in January 324. Perhaps modern Golâshkerd in Iran.
  24. Alexandria in Susiana: not far from the mouth of the Tigris. Probably settled with Macedonian, Greek and Iranian veterans and natives. Later known as Spasinou Charax. In the neighborhood of Al Qurnah in Iraq.

These were the towns that were founded by Alexander. Most of them are military settlements, where Macedonian and Greek veterans were left. They were not happy, so far from the Mediterranean, and on at least two occasionsboth after a report of Alexander’s deaththe homesick veterans decided to go home.

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