Gr 保罗。 | 古亚历山大图书馆

西方的最重要的学习资源库

J. 哈罗德 · Ellens 08/03/2014

读 J. 哈罗德 · Ellens 条"亚历山大古代图书馆"作为它最早出现在 圣经 》 审查, 2 月 1997. 年 5 月第一次再版圣经历史日报 》 这篇文章 2013.— — 埃德.


3 月 415 公元, 在一个晴朗的日子,在大斋节的神圣的季节, 钱卓乐的亚历山德里亚, 世界上最强大的基督教神学家, 被谋杀的富家, 最著名的古希腊和罗马哲学家的时间. 希帕蒂亚是像恺教会中的动物一样被屠杀, 以前一个皇帝崇拜的避难所.1 西里尔可能尚未从她的车子拉富家岗之间, 扯掉她的衣服和削减她用的碎瓦碎片, 但她谋杀肯定做了下他的权力和他的批准。西里尔 · (c. 375–444) 是的亚历山德里亚大主教, 第五世纪 C.E 地中海世界的主导文化和宗教中心.2 他取代他的叔叔西奥菲勒斯在那崇高的办公室在 412 成为著名和臭名昭著的他支持将成为所谓的正统基督教后迦克墩普世教会理事会的领导 (451), 当基督教的基本教义牢固建立了所有的时间.

西里尔的名声主要来自他的攻击产生对其他教会的领袖, 和他的方法往往很残酷和不诚实. 他讨厌聂, 君士坦丁的主教, 举个例子, 因为聂认为基督的神性和人性方面都有别于另一个, 而西里尔强调他们的团结. 在以弗所会议 431, 西里尔 · 安排进行表决谴责聂的发生在聂的支持者 — — 从东方教会主教 — — 还没来得及到达. 也不是西里尔以上通过举办游行和煽动暴乱滥用他的对手. 它是这样一群暴徒, 率领西里尔的追随者之一, 彼得的读者, 那屠杀了最后一位伟大的柏拉图哲学家, 希帕蒂亚.

西里尔是荣幸今天在基督教界为圣人. 但在他死的时候, 很多他同胞的主教表示他的离去长舒一口气. Theodoret, Cyrrhus 的主教, 写那西里尔"死亡,使那些比他多活快乐, 但它最有可能伤心死了; 还有原因,怕错过了, 发现他太麻烦, 他们应该把他送回给我们。"3

Learn about the dazzling discoveries coming out of the Alexander the Great-era tomb at Amphipolis in Greece.


One reason Cyril had Hypatia murdered, according to the English historian Edward Gibbon, was that Cyril thought Hypatia had the political ear of Alexandria’s chief magistrate, who vigorously opposed Cyril’s ambition to expel from the city those who held different religious views from his own.4 Cyril was also jealous of Hypatia because scholars from all over the world crowded into her lectures in Alexandria, Athens and elsewhere. 苏格拉底 (380–450), a church historian from Constantinople, says of Hypatia:

[她] was so learned that she surpassed all contemporary philosophers. She carried on the Platonic tradition derived from Plotinus, and instructed those who desired to learn in…philosophic discipline. Wherefore all those wishing to work at philosophy streamed in from all parts of the world, collecting around her on account of her learned and courageous character. She maintained a dignified intercourse with the chief people of the city. She was not ashamed to spend time in the society of men, for all esteemed her highly, and admired her for her purity.5

Hypatia’s father, Theon, was a leading professor of philosophy and science in Alexandria. He had prepared a recension of Euclid’s Elements, which remained the only known Greek text of the great mathematician’s work until an earlier version was discovered in the Vatican Library in this century.6 Theon also predicted eclipses of the sun and moon that occurred in 364.

希帕蒂亚, who was born about 355, collaborated with her father from early in her life, editing his works and preparing them for publication. According to one authority, she was “by nature more refined and talented than her father.”7 The extant texts of Ptolemy’s AlmagestHandy Tables were probably prepared for publication by her.8

Such scientific and philosophical enterprises were not new or surprising in Hypatia’s Alexandria, which already boasted a 700-year-old, international reputation for sophisticated scholarship. Founded in 331 B.C.E.9 by command of 亚历山大大帝, the city contained almost from its beginnings an institution that would remain of immense importance to the world for the next 2,300 年. Originally called the Mouseion, or Shrine of the Muses, this research center and library grew into “an institution that may be conceived of as a library in the modern sense—an organization with a staff headed by a librarian that acquires and arranges bibliographic material for the use of qualified readers.”10

The Athenian Agora was a great center of ancient learning. Read about recent agora excavations in the Bible History Daily feature “Stoa Poikile Excavations in the Athenian Agora.”


事实上, the Alexandria Library was much more. It “stimulated an intensive editorial program that spawned the development of critical editions, textual exegesis and such basic research tools as dictionaries, concordances and encyclopedias.”11 The library in fact developed into a huge research institution comparable to a modern university—containing a center for the collection of books, a museum for the preservation of scientific artifacts, residences and workrooms for scholars, lecture halls and a refectory. 在建设这个宏伟的机构, 一门现代作家所指出的, 亚历山大的学者是“从零开始”; 他们的礼物,以文明是我们从来没有从头开始.12在 323 公元前, 因为夏天在埃及北部海岸打破, 亚历山大大帝死在美索不达米亚. 在少了一年多, 亚里士多德在哈尔基斯和德摩斯梯尼死在Calaurie. 到今天, 这三个巨大的数字, 超过其他任何, 保存耶稣和柏拉图也许, 仍然至关重要文明生活的理想世界各地. 究其原因,这些和其他的数字今天仍然活着的我们是古代图书馆和亚历山大的“大学”.13

当亚历山大去世, 他的帝国被他的三名高级指挥官之间的分. Seleucis I Nicator became king of the empire’s eastern reaches, founding the Seleucid empire (312–64 B.C.E.) with its capital at Babylon.14 Antigonus I Monopthalmus (the One-Eyed) took possession of Macedonia, Greece and large parts of Asia Minor, where he established the Antigonid dynasty, which lasted until 169 B.C.E.15 A third commander, 托勒密, assumed the position of satrap, or governor, of Egypt. Ptolemy made Alexandria his capital, brought Alexander’s body to the city for a royal entombment and quickly embarked upon a program of urban development.16

Ptolemy’s grandest building project was the Alexandria Library, which he founded in 306 B.C.E. Almost immediately the library epitomized the best scholarship of the ancient world, containing the intellectual riches of Mesopotamia, 波斯, 希腊, Rome and Egypt. Until it was closed in 642 C.E.—when the Arabs conquered Egypt and carried off the library’s treasure—it was the major vehicle by which the learning of the past was kept alive.17 Not only did the library preserve the ancient sciences, but it proved to be a vital philosophical and spiritual force behind the surprising new worlds of Judaism, Neoplatonism and Christianity.

The history of the library and its university center falls into five stages. The first, from its founding in 306 B.C.E. to about 150 公元前, was the period of Aristotelian science, during which the scientific method was the dominant feature of scholarly investigation. The second, 从 150 B.C.E. 自 30 公元前, was marked by a decided shift away from Aristotelian empiricism to a Platonic preoccupation with metaphysics and religion. This period coincided with the consolidation of Roman influence in the Mediterranean basin. The third was the age of Philo Judaeus’s influence, 从 30 B.C.E. 自 150 C.E. The fourth was the era of the Catechetical School, 150 自 350 公元, and the fifth was the period of the philosophical movement known as the Alexandrian School, 350 自 642 C.E. Together, these five stages cover a thousand years. No other institution of this kind has proved to be so long-lived or so intellectually dominant of its world and subsequent history as Alexandria’s library.

Sometime between 307 和 296 公元前, Ptolemy I brought from Athens a noted scholar named Demetrios of Phaleron (345–283 B.C.E.) to undertake his vast library project.

Demetrios set about this task with vigor, providing the course the library was to follow for a millennium. 他的天才在于他的库什么的概念多为书籍的插座; 它也将在这里新知识会产生一所大学. 所谓图书馆的初始设计十分厅住房书. 这些大厅被大理石柱廊连接到其他大学建筑. 学者进行了扩展王室约见津贴生活和工作在这所大学社区. 与此同时, 委托收购书任务部队淘地中海. 书籍甚至在亚历山大港停泊船只被没收, 复制,然后还原到它们的主人. 中拷贝也作了写字间担任书店, 创建具有国际客户一个利润丰厚的企业.

在 283 B.C.E. 德米特里被以弗所泽诺多托斯继任为馆长 (325-260 B.C.E.), 谁对所担任的职位 25 年. 这辉煌的学者是希腊文法, 文学评论家, 诗人和编辑. 他继续荷马德米特里工作, 使得现存的文本进行了详细的比较研究, 删除可疑通道, 移调他人,使emendations. 他还制作的第一个关键版本 伊利亚特 》奥德赛 并在设定每个可达 24 书我们今天有他们.

Interested in the history and meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls? In the FREE eBook Dead Sea Scrolls, learn what the Dead Sea Scrolls are and why are they important. Find out what they tell us about the Bible, Christianity and Judaism.


这可能是泽诺多托斯谁作为库的一部分建立被称为公共借阅区Serapeion,如此命名是因为它是神塞拉皮斯的庇护所,以及一个公共图书馆. 他任命了两位助理馆员: 埃托利亚亚历山大 (出生ç. 315 公元前), to specialize in the Greek tragic and satiric plays and poetry; and Lycophron of Chalcis (出生ç. 325 公元前), to concentrate on the comic poets. Both of these men became famous in their own right as writers and scholars.One of the things we would most like to have today from the Alexandria library is its catalogue, called the Pinakes, the great work of Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 305–235 B.C.E.), who served under four chief librarians but never rose to that position himself. The full title of the PinakesTablets of the Outstanding Works in the Whole of Greek Civilization.18 Pinakes means “tablets” and probably referred originally to the tablets or plaques attached to the stacks, cabinets and rooms of the library, identifying the library’s wide variety of books from numerous cultures, most of them translated into Greek.一个

虽然只的片段 Pinakes 幸存, 我们知道了很多关于它的. 最可靠的来源同意在目录中使用的组织方法, 这充分证明了古库的复杂角色. 的 Pinakes 组合性 120 春联, 在库中的所有的作品被组织纪律, 与每个工作实质性书目描述.19 因为已经自古以来概念化知识的百科全书是从卡利马科斯的设计派生. 作为全球领先的学者所指出的, “作者作为主入口的西方传统,可以说是起源于卡利马科斯的 Pinakes.”20

Pinakes 其标题确定每个卷, 然后记录作者的姓名和出生地, 笔者的父亲和老师的名字, the place and nature of the author’s education, any nickname or pseudonym applied to the author, a short biography (including a list of the author’s works and a comment on their authenticity), the first line of the work specified, a brief digest of the volume, the source from which the book was acquired (such as the city where it was bought or the ship or traveler from which it was confiscated), the name of the former owner, the name of the scholar who edited or corrected the text, whether the book contained a single work or numerous distinct works, and the total number of lines in each work.21

Pinakes was the first great library catalogue of western civilization, just as The Bible of Gutenberg was the first great printed book. [我]t earns for its author the title of “Father of Bibliography.” Thus, as in all intellectual efforts, the Greeks fixed the canons of cataloguing, which have been incorporated, more or less, in our Library of Congress, European, and other systems. 然而, 的 Pinakes was more than a catalogue. It was the work of the foremost man of letters of his age. He could not treat even a purely scientific subject as the Pinakes…without imparting to his work the rich stores of his scholarship, and thus the first world catalogue of knowledge became also the first literary and critical history of Hellenic literature, and also earned for its author the title of “Father of Literary History.”22

By the end of Callimachus’s life, the library is purported to have contained 532,800 carefully catalogued books, 42,800 of which were in the lending library at the Serapeion. Two and a half centuries later, in the time of Jesus, it held one million volumes.23

It was officials with the conquering Arab army who last saw the library in its operational state. Undoubtedly much of it was carried off to their royal libraries. It is likely that the character and structure of Callimachus’s Pinakes was used as a model for a brilliant Arabic counterpart from the tenth century known as the Al-Fihrist, 或 Index, by Ibn-Al-Nadim, which we have in virtually its complete and original form. Surviving fragments of the Pinakes confirm the likelihood of this.24

For its first two centuries, the library at Alexandria continued to be a center for nearly every kind of research in the natural sciences as well as in philosophy and the humanities, employing the scientific method developed by Aristotle, 其中, thanks to Francis Bacon (1561–1626), forms the foundation of modern science.25

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (275–195 B.C.E.), a student of Callimachus who rose to become chief librarian, is a classic example of the Alexandrian scholar of the period. He was an accomplished mathematician, geographer, 天文学家, grammarian, chronographer, philologist, philosopher, historian and poet. He founded the sciences of astronomy, physical geography, geodetics and chronology. He was known as the most learned person of the Ptolemaic age26 and was acclaimed by his contemporaries as second only to Plato as a literary thinker and philosopher.

Eratosthenes dated the Trojan War to about 1184 公元前, a date generally accepted in ancient times and respected by many modern scholars. 他摸索出了一个日历,包括闰年, 他计算出了地球自转轴的倾斜. 他最难忘的成就是一个准确的方法的发明用于测量地球的周长 (见边栏文章).

在他担任馆长, 埃拉托色尼带到亚历山大三大阁楼悲剧家官方雅典副本: 埃斯库罗斯, 索福克勒斯和欧里庇德斯. 这涉及有点下流马交易: 托勒密三世批准的安排,从雅典借用这些珍贵的手稿, 承诺相当于现代 $4 万元作为担保.27 随着在手的文件, 托勒密三世随后放弃了他的存款, 傲慢保留的亚历山大图书馆的原稿, and instructed the staff to make good copies on fine quality papyrus, which were then sent back to Athens. “The Athenians with both the money and the copies,” one scholar has observed, “also appear to have been satisfied with the deal.”28

Aristophanes of Byzantium (c. 257–180 B.C.E.) followed Eratosthenes as chief librarian and served for about 15 年. He was a man with a photographic memory and could cite at length the literary sources in the library.29 He had read them all. It is said that while judging poetry competitions he regularly detected plagiarized lines, and on a number of occasions, when challenged by the king to justify his criticism, cited the sources and recited the original passages. As a philologist, grammarian and author, Aristophanes produced poetry, dramas and critical editions of the works of his famous namesake, Aristophanes (c. 450-C. 388 公元前), the Greek poet and dramatist.

Near the end of his life, Aristophanes was imprisoned by Ptolemy V Epiphanes for entertaining an offer to move to the great library of Pergamum. Such repression did not create an ideal climate in which scholarship might flourish. After his imprisonment, the library languished under an interim director, Apollonius Eidograph. But in 175 B.C.E. a new chief librarian was appointed, Aristarchus of Samothrace (217–130 B.C.E.), who returned the institution to its grand tradition of high scholarship and scientific sophistication.

Aristarchus was chief librarian for 30 年, 从 175 自 145 B.C.E. He is still considered one of the greatest literary scholars because his recension of the works of Homer continues to be the standard text (textus receptus) upon which all modern versions are based. Besides his two critical editions of Homer, he produced similarly erudite editions of Hesiod, Pindar, Archilochus, Alcaeus and Anacreon. He wrote commentaries on the works of all these classical poets as well as on the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes, and on the historian Herodotus.

Aristarchus had been the teacher of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, and though the latter gained a reputation for being a monster, the two apparently remained friends. When a civil war and political insurgency against the king arose in 131 公元前, Aristarchus accompanied him in his banishment to Cyprus. There Aristarchus died before Ptolemy VIII returned in triumph in 130 B.C.E. to continue his oppressive reign for another 14 年. With his reign, the history of wise and humane Ptolemies and illustrious librarians ended. Thereafter, valuable scholarship continued in Alexandria, such as the work of Philo Judaeus (30 B.C.E.–50 C.E.), the Catechetical School of Clement and Origen (150–350 C.E.) and the Neoplatonic School (350–642 C.E.), but after 130 B.C.E. both kings and scholars were lesser lights. Revolutions, insurrections and persecutions wracked the kingdom as dynastic political intrigue plagued the country, the city and the scholarly community. By the end of Aristarchus’s tenure, such dissatisfaction existed among the scholars regarding the character of the king and the conditions of the scholarly community that Ptolemy VIII imposed a military controller upon the operations of the library.

Considering the extensive accumulation of scientific data collected by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and their advanced methods of empirical research, it is surprising that they did not achieve some key breakthrough in chemistry or physics that would have precipitated an industrial revolution. The Greeks and Romans both understood, 举个例子, the power of steam produced by heated water. The Romans harnessed steam for powering toys. There is some indication that they employed it for powering siege guns. What held them back from utilizing it in steam-driven machinery, which would have enabled that giant leap from mere muscle to mechanical power? They had refined sciences of optics, geometry and physics. What prevented them from imagining and creating a microscope? They understood atomic theory in some coarse way. What prevented them from identifying the components of water as hydrogen and oxygen and thus moving on to the intricacies of chemistry? They seem to have marched right up to the intellectual and scientific threshold for mechanization and then fallen back into a 1,500-year darkness. Their sciences needed to be rediscovered and reinvented in the Renaissance of the 12th to 14th centuries before the next step forward could be made. Why?

The likely answer lies in the area of two cultural circumstances: (1) the shift in Alexandrian Library scholarship from Aristotelian empiricism to Platonic metaphysical speculation in about 100 公元前, 和 (2) the barbarian subduction of Rome in the fifth and sixth centuries C.E.

Increasingly during this period of decline, the wealth and intellectual capital of Alexandria was dissipated in trying to maintain workable relations with the rising power of Rome. As the tribute to Rome increased, and the material investment in the library and its scholarship suffered, the superior intellectual importance, prowess and productivity that had been standard under the early Ptolemies proved impossible to maintain: “The dons were drawn into the political vortex, and those not so inclined were silent. The zest to produce the things of culture was permanently interrupted.”30

One consequence of these disturbing times was an intense turn toward religion. Hellenistic Jews were experimenting with various kinds of theologies.31 In Greco-Roman culture, mystery religions were popular, despite the prominence of the emperor cult. The roots of Christianity, Gnosticism and rabbinic Judaism were already insinuating themselves into the rich soil of this uneasy world. In Alexandria, the scholarly community abandoned its intense, fruitful focus upon empirical science after the mode of Aristotle and lost itself in the scholarly inquiry into the religion and philosophy of Platonism.

Although the decline of the golden age of the ancient library and university center is sad to contemplate, the “sea change” nevertheless ushered in the newly productive era of the Hellenistic Judaism of Philo Judaeus (30 B.C.E.–50 C.E.); the Hellenistic Neoplatonism of Plotinus (205–270 C.E.), Porphyry (c. 234–305 C.E.), Olympius (c. 350–391 C.E.) and Hypatia (355–415 C.E.); and the Hellenistic Christianity of Pantaenus (c. 100–160 C.E.), Clement (c. 150–215 C.E.), Origen (c. 185–254 C.E.), Tertullian (c. 155–225 C.E.), Athanasius (c. 293–373 C.E.) and Cyril of Alexandria (c. 375–444 C.E.). So the scholarly culture of the ancient library became the seedbed of the great philosophies of Judaism and Christianity and thus has continued to influence Western culture for two millennia, showing little sign of abating as we move into the third.

Philo Judaeus was surely one of the most prominent scholars in Alexandria at the turn of the millennium. His life overlaps that of Jesus of Nazareth and is the scholarly bridge between the pre-Christian era of Greek antiquity and the begin ning of Christian history in Alexandria. With the appearance of Philo, Jewish scholarship became a prominent force there. Philo was a member of a distinguished Jewish family in the influential Alexandrian Jewish community. His brother, Alexander the Alabarch, led that community. Philo lived much of his life in contemplation, authoring a large array of books.

The Jewish community included half of the city of Alexandria in Philo’s time and a large part of the general population of Egypt. Philo and his contemporaries considered themselves to be faithful Jews. Hellenized Judaism was generally welcomed by the Jews of Egypt and provided both an interpretation of Judaism for the Greeks and an interpretation of Hellenism for Jewish society, stretching the whole upon the frame of historic Jewish traditions.

Philo sought to demonstrate that Judaism could be accepted by the Greeks for its universal wisdom and superior insight into ultimate truth. The subjects Philo treated and the organization he used reflect the pattern set for scholarship at the library by Callimachus’s Pinakes. Philo systematically addressed the full range of topics that had formed the categories of that great catalogue. His writings include investigations of theology, 哲学, literary criticism, textual analysis, rhetoric, history, law, medicine and cosmology. 然而, Philo was not simply interested in objective scientific exploration. His greatest motive was to demonstrate that all that is valuable and virtuous in Greek thought and ideals was also epitomized by the biblical patriarchs and heroes of faith of Jewish religious tradition. Philo treated the Greek notion of Logos, 举个例子, as the universal expression of Hebrew Wisdom (Khokhma in Hebrew; Sophia in Greek), God’s self-expression in the material world.

Philo lived at a time when confidence in a world governed by cause and effect had given over to questions about the purpose of life and history. His questions concerned the nature of God; God’s function in the universe as creator, manager and redeemer; and the meaning and destiny of humankind. The primary question for Platonic-minded scholars and laypersons alike was how a transcendent, ineffable God of pure spirit could be linked to a material universe. 此外, it seemed evident that the material world was shot through with pain and evil. How could a perfect God create a flawed world?

In both the Jewish and Greek traditions that Philo inherited, this problem was solved by a model of the world in which God was separated from the created universe by a series of intermediaries. These were thought of as divine forces, agencies or persons. The main intermediary was the Logos. The Greek Stoic philosophers had made much of the concept of Logos from the time of early Platonism onward. Philo saw Greek tradition as simply another expression of the references to Wisdom in Job 28, Proverbs 1–9, The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, Baruch and other literature in the Hebrew tradition. Philo understood the Logos to be responsible for creating the material universe, supervising it providentially and redeeming it. For Philo, Logos was God’s rationality, both in God’s own mind and in the rational structure of creation. Sophia was the understanding that God has and that humans acquire when they discover God’s Logos in all things. Philo, on occasion, allegorically refers to Logos/Sophia as an angel and, rarely, as a “second God.” In his exposition of Genesis 17 (describing God’s covenant with Abraham), he characterizes God as a trinity of agencies.32

This article was originally published in 圣经 》 审查. Every article ever published in Biblical Archaeology Review, 圣经 》 审查Archaeology Odyssey is available in the BAS Library. Click here to visit the Library.


Between 150 和 180 C.E. a Stoic philosopher named Pantaenus was converted to Christianity and became the headmaster, if not the founder, of a Christian institution known as the Catechetical School of Alexandria. This school reflected the long-standing intellectual tradition of the Alexandrian Library and may well have been a part of that scholarly enterprise.33Pantaenus served as head of the Catechetical School long enough to bring it out of obscurity and then, handing over its leadership to Clement, became a missionary. In India Pantaenus discovered a community of Jewish Christians, disciples of the apostle Thomas, whose faith and life were built around their use of a Hebrew version of the Gospel of Matthew. Pantaenus never returned to Alexandria.34

Clement (c. 150–215 C.E.) was a student of Pantaenus, and Origen (c. 185–254) was very probably a student of Clement. The theological connection between them, as well as their dependence upon Philo’s work of 150 years earlier, urges this conclusion. Clement and Origen seem to have taken over Philo’s model of God’s relationship to the created world, particularly the function of the Logos in creation, providence and salvation.

These two towering figures of early Christian theological development were headmasters of the Catechetical School of Alexandria, which flourished under them and quickly became famous throughout the Christian world. Eusebius (c. 260–348), a church historian, refers to it as “a school of sacred learning established…from ancient times, which has continued down to our own times, and which we have understood was held by men able in eloquence, and the study of divine things.”35

Its relationship to Philo and his classical Greek predecessors has been described as follows:

The first representatives of early church exegesis were not the bishops but rather the “teachers” (didaskaloi) of the catechetical schools, modeled after the Hellenistic philosophers’ schools in which interpretive and philological principles had been developed according to the traditions of the founders of the respective schools. The allegorical interpretation of Greek classical philosophical and poetical texts, which was prevalent at the Library and Museum (the school) of Alexandria, 举个例子, directly influenced the exegetical method of the Christian Catechetical school there. Basing his principles on the methods of Philo of Alexandria and Clement of Alexandria, his teacher, 和其他人, Origen…created the foundation for the type of Christian exegesis (i.e., the typological-allegorical method) that lasted from the patristic period and the Middle Ages up to the time of Luther in the 16th century. Origen based his exegesis upon comprehensive textual-critical work that was common to current Hellenistic practices such as collecting Hebrew texts and Greek parallel translations of the Old Testament. His main concern, 然而, was that of ascertaining the spiritual meaning of the Scriptures, the transhistorical divine truth that is hidden in the records of the history of salvation in the Scriptures. He thus developed a system containing four types of interpretation: literal, moral, typological, and allegorical.36

Clement’s theological and philosophical emphasis differed little from that of Philo, except that the orientation of his notion of the Logos/Sophia doctrine was Christian rather than Jewish. Clement’s aim in his teaching and ministry was to convert to Christianity members of the educated Greek community in Alexandria, the sort of people who would previously have been attracted to Philo’s type of Hellenistic Judaism. “Just as Philo had presented Judaism as the highest form of wisdom and the means by which humankind would come to ‘see God,“所以克莱门特呼吁基督教是到目前所有的理念已经被感动......优于俄耳甫斯的新旋律的结束。”37

俄先进的克莱门特的想法,并直接识别的标志与拿撒勒人耶稣的人, 因此化身的标志. 该标志的这种人格化是不是在斐洛世界罕见, 克莱门特和奥利. 事实上, 它是在犹太和希腊传统一个比较普遍的做法作为具有特定非凡的人不同的时间确定受孕的神通或代理人. 作为神圣的机构是在一个人的人的化身, 神是人性化与人的神化.

It was this significant North African theological perspective in the theology of Clement and Origen that dominated Christian thought from the Council of Nicea in 325 C.E. to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 C.E. At these councils the doctrines of the deity of Christ and the trinitarian nature of God were worked out. 因此, there is a straight line between the Alexandria Library, Philo Judaeus’s Hellenistic Judaism and the Christian doctrines of the deity of Christ and the nature of the trinity. This connection is, 答案是肯定的, very complex, and other forces also affected this development, such as the great variety of polytheistic theologies (which propose that there exist intermediary beings between God and creation) present in the Judaisms of 200 B.C.E. 自 200 C.E. and that Philo wished to counteract in order to refine and protect Jewish monotheism. 然而, it is the influence of Philo’s theological and philosophical model (mediated through Clement and Origen to the bishops who met at the great councils), combined with the very speculative allegorical interpretation of scripture under the influence of Neoplatonism (typical of the outlook in Alexandria), that explains the theological move of the councils from a Jesus who was filled with the Logos to a Christ who was the being of God.

As this Judeo-Christian development unfolded, the seeds of the Alexandrian school were sown at the ancient library and its university. Plotinus (205–270 C.E.) established the movement with his articulation of a new kind of Platonism. Many similarities can be seen between this Neoplatonism and Judaism and Christianity in the second and third centuries C.E. Neoplatonism stood for an intense personal spirituality, estimable ethical principles and a theology rooted in the Hellenistic philosophy that so significantly shaped Philo.

Plotinus and his disciple Porphyry (c. 234–305 C.E.) looked for the ultimate religious experience as an ecstatic vision of God, adhered to standards of personal purity that made the most ardent Christian envious and proclaimed that God is revealed in the material world in a trinity of manifestations. This singularly attractive alternative to Christianity was championed in the fourth and fifth centuries in Alexandria by the notable Neoplatonist “saints,” Olympius and Hypatia—bringing us back to where we started.

Although Hypatia was brutally murdered by Cyril for advocating a philosophy he thought was antithetical to “orthodox” Christianity, her brand of Neoplatonism became increasingly attractive to Christian philosophers. By the sixth century, it was taken over by them. Though the Alexandrian school was formally eclipsed when the Arabs destroyed the library—and much of the city—in 642, its spirit survives to this day in its influence over Christianity.

That is the story of the Alexandria Library, 太. After destroying the library, the Arabs preserved a large percentage of the ancient volumes—as evidenced by the fact that they possessed, in Greek and Arabic translations, many of the works of the ancient poets, playwrights, scientists and philosophers, including Plato, 亚里斯多德, Euclid and Eratosthenes. When the European Crusaders encountered the Arabic world in the 11th and 12th centuries, those venerable works became known again in Europe, giving rise to the Renaissance. Islamic philosophers and scientists—such as Averröes, a Spanish Arab (1126–1198 C.E.), and Avicenna, a Persian (980–1037 C.E.)—gave the ancient books and their wisdom back to the Western world and taught Christian Europe to know again and prize its roots in ancient Greece.

So the ancient library of Alexandria rose like a phoenix from her own ashes. She has been wounded, perhaps, but has never really died.


J. 哈罗德 · EllensJ. 哈罗德 · Ellens is a retired scholar who researched at the University of Michigan and served as an occasional lecturer for the Institute for Antiquity and Christianity at the Claremont Graduate School in California. He is the author of hundreds of articles and numerous books, 包括 古亚历山大图书馆Early Christian Theological Development (Claremont Graduate School, 1993).


Notes

一个. The best-known book collected from a non-Greek culture and translated into Greek at the library was the Hebrew Bible, known in its Greek form as the Septuagint (LXX). It seems to have reached the state of a largely completed and official Greek text between 150 和 50 B.C.E. Philo Judaeus (30 B.C.E.–50 C.E.) obviously knew and worked with a Greek version of the Hebrew Bible.

1. Maria Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandri一个, 跨. F. 天琴座 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1995), p. 93. Cf. J. 哈罗德 · Ellens, The Ancient Library of Alexandria and Early Christian Theological Development, Occasional Papers 27, Institute for Antiquity and Christianity (Claremont: Claremont Graduate School, 1993), pp. 44–51.

2. “Saint Cyril of Alexandria,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Micropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 3, cols. 329–330.

3. Theodoret, quoted in The Works of Charles Kingsley, 2 vols. (纽约: Co-operative Publishing Society, 1899).

4. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 教育署. J.B. Bury, 3 vols., with notes by Gibbon, introduction and index by Bury and a letter to the reader from P. Guedalla (纽约: Heritage, 1946).

5. Socrates Scholasticus, Historia 英格兰 7.15, in A.C. Zenos, ed., vol. 2 的 The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2d ser., 教育署. Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957), p. 160. See also Edward A. Parsons, The Alexandrian Library, Glory of the Hellenic World: Its Rise, Antiquities, and Destructions (伦敦: Cleaver-Hume, 1952), p. 356.

6. “Theon of Alexandria,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Micropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 9, col. 938; “Euclid,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 6, col. 1020; Ellens, 亚历山德里亚, p. 44; and Dzielska, 希帕蒂亚的亚历山德里亚, pp. 68–69.

7. Dzielska, 希帕蒂亚的亚历山德里亚, p. 70, quoting Damascius without citing what source.

8. Dzielska, 希帕蒂亚的亚历山德里亚, pp. 70–73.

9. Steven Blake Shubert, “The Oriental Origins of the Alexandrian Library,” Libri 43:2 (1993), p. 143.

10. Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” pp. 142–143.

11. Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” p. 143.

12. Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” p. 143.

13. Ellens, 亚历山德里亚, pp. 1–2.

14. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 16, cols. 501–503.

15. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 1, cols. 990–991.

16. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 15, cols. 180–182.

17. For a detailed discussion of the date of the destruction of the library, see Ellens, 亚历山德里亚, pp. 6–12, 50–51; and the superbly objective and thorough treatment of the process of the library’s demise by Mostafa El-Abbadi, Life and Fate of the Ancient Library of Alexandria (巴黎: UNESCO/UNDP, 1990), pp. 145–179. See also Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vol. 1, pp. 57–58, and vol. 2, chap. 28 (on the destruction of the library); and Parsons, Alexandrian Library, pp. 411–412.

18. Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” p. 144, in which reference is made to the tenth-century C.E. Byzantine Greek volume called the Suidas Lexicon. This lexicon cites the full name of the Pinakes and describes its size as 120 春联. Cf. Ellens, Alexandri一个, p. 3; and F. J. Witty, “The Pinakes of Callimachus,” Library Quarterly 28 (1958), p. 133.

19. Suidas Lexicon; Tzetzes, as cited in El-Abbadi, Life and Fate, p. 101. See also Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” p. 144; and Witty, “Pinakes of Callimachus.”

20. Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” p. 144. It is interesting in this regard that Anne Holmes (“The Alexandrian Library,” Libri 30 [12 月 1980], p. 21) suggests that the Pinakes may have been a list of authors and books that Callimachus wanted to acquire for the library rather than a catalogue of existing library holdings. This is unlikely because of the detailed bibliographical and critical material incorporated in each entry, including the indication that the book was purchased from some other library source or confiscated from some traveler. Lionel Casson (“Triumphs from the Ancient World’s First Think Tank,” Smithsonian 10 [六月 1985], p. 164) urges that the Pinakes was conceivably only an encyclopedia of Greek literary history. In such a case, one wonders why it was called the Pinakes, connecting it with the tiles designating the categories of storage compartments and their contents.

21. 埃尔 - Abbadi, Life and Fate, p. 100; and Parsons, Alexandrian Library, p. 211. See also J.E. Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1906–1908), p. 34 n. 3.

22. Parsons, Alexandrian Library, pp. 217–218.

23. Parsons, Alexandrian Library, pp. 110, 204–205. See also El-Abbadi, Life and Fate, pp. 95, 100; and Tzetzes, a 12th-century scholar whose Prolegomena to Aristophanes, 也被称为 Scholium Plautinum, may be found in R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship (牛津大学: Clarendon, 1968), p. 101.

24. 埃尔 - Abbadi, Life and Fate, p. 102.

25. Kathleen Marguerite Lea, “Francis Bacon,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed., vol. 2, cols. 561–566. See also Catherine Drinker Bowen, Francis Bacon, The Temper of a Man (波士顿: Little, Brown, 1963).

26. Gilbert Murray, A History of Ancient Greek Literature (纽约: Scribner, 1897), p. 387.

27. Casson, “Triumphs.” The ancient sources describe the sum as 15 talents, which would probably exceed $4 million today.

28. Shubert, “Oriental Origins,” pp. 145, 166 n. 8, cites Galen’s Comm. II in Hippocraits Epidem. libri III 239–240, which I have not been able to consult. See also J. Platthy, Sources on the Earliest Greek Libraries (Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1968), pp. 118–119; Holmes, “Alexandrian Library,” p. 290; and P.M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (牛津大学: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972), p. 325.

29. 维特鲁威, De Architectura 7.6–8. See also Parsons, Alexandrian Library, p. 150; and El-Abbadi, Life and Fate, pp. 105, 111. Vitruvius lived during the same period as Julius Caesar, Philo Judaeus and Jesus Christ. He was a famous Roman architect, engineer and city planner. The work cited here is a handbook for Roman architects. His style for architecture and city planning was largely Greek, as he lived at the beginning of the phase of creative Roman architectural style, and his work heavily influenced Renaissance art, architecture and engineering. Pliny the Elder borrowed heavily from Vitruvius in the preparation of his Natural History. As was typical in the ancient world, Pliny does not cite his sources and credit Vitruvius. De Architectura contains ten books on building materials, Greek designs in temple construction, private buildings, floors and stucco decoration, hydraulics, clocks, measurement skills, astronomy, and civil and military engines. He was classically Hellenistic in his perspective.

30. Parsons, Alexandrian Library, p. 152; see also p. 229, where Parsons, citing a letter from Thomas E. Page to James Loeb, declares that “But for the patronage of the Ptolemies and the labor of devoted students in the Museum, Homer…might have wholly perished, and we might know nothing of Aeschylus…We still owe Alexandria a great debt.” Murray (Literature, p. 388) remarks, “Zenodotus, Callimachus [sic], Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of Byzantium, and Aristarchus were the first five librarians; what institution has ever had such a row of giants at its head?”

31. In this regard see, 举个例子, Alan Segal, Two Powers in Heaven, Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism (莱顿: 布里尔, 1977); Maurice Casey, From Jewish Prophet to Gentile God, The Origins and Development of New Testament Christology (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1991); Jarl Fossum, The Name of God and the Angel of the Lord, Samaritan and Jewish Concepts of Intermediation and the Origin of Gnosticism (Tübingen: Mohr, 1985); Gabrielle Boccaccini, Middle Judaism, Jewish Thought, 300 B.C.E.-200 C.E. (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991).

32. Philo Judaeus, The Works of Philo, 跨. C.D. Yonge (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1993). See also Harry A. Wolfson, Philo, 2 vols. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1947).

33. Some scholars question whether there really was a formal catechetical school as early as the second century, rather than just independent teachers; see Roelof van den Broek, “The Christian ‘School’ of Alexandria in the Second and Third Centuries,” in Centres of Learning: Learning and Location in Pre-Modern Europe and the Near East, 教育署. J.W. Drijvers and A.A. MacDonald (莱顿: 布里尔, 1995). The preponderance of evidence, 然而, strongly indicates that there was one; see W.H.C. Frend, The Rise of Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984), p. 286; Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1955), pp. 190–191, 217–255; Schaff and Wace, eds., The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd ser., vol. 1 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952), pp. 224–226, 249–281; and G. Bardy, “Aux origines de l’ecole d’Alexandrie,” Reserches de Science Religieuse 27 (1937), pp. 65–90.

34. Frend, Rise of Christianity, p. 286.

35. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, p. 190. See also Annewies van den Hoek, “How Alexandrian Was Clement of Alexandria? Reflections on Clement and His Alexandrian Background,” HeyJ31 (1990), pp. 179–194.

36. Ernst Wilhelm Bentz, “Christianity,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, vol. 4, col. 498.

37. Frend, Rise of Christianity, p. 286.

Gr 保罗。 | 膝伤可能识别亚历山大大帝的父亲, 但一些人质疑

在一个新的文章发表在美国国家科学院学报, 安东尼 Bartsiokas 和他的同事认为,从墓的骨骼我在吉纳马其顿的腓力二世, 亚历山大大帝的父亲. 这是直接的对比,工作发表在 5 月的 Antikas 和永利 Antikas, 结束,骨骼在古墓 II 在吉纳的腓力二世和斯基泰人的公主.

图 4 从 Bartsiokas et al. 2015, 美国国家科学院院刊. 个人的左腿侧面观 1 在屈曲位显示大规模膝关节僵直. (图像通过 Bartsiokas et al. 在美国国家科学院院刊打开访问。)

Bartsiokas 和同事们的分析的骨头从坟墓带队去相信那些是腓力二世的遗体. 即, 膝盖受伤,股骨和胫骨融合的角度很好关联与历史记载的菲利普的经历穿透伤和随之而来的跛足. 他们进一步认为,女性在墓是腓力的妻子克娄巴特拉和新生儿骨头他们的孩子出生就在几天前菲利普的暗杀.
图 4 从 Bartsiokas et al. 2015, 美国国家科学院院刊. 个人的左腿侧面观 1 在屈曲位显示大规模膝关节僵直. (图像通过 Bartsiokas et al. 在美国国家科学院院刊打开访问。)

图 4 从 Bartsiokas et al. 2015, 美国国家科学院院刊. 个人的左腿侧面观 1 在屈曲位显示大规模膝关节僵直. (图像通过 Bartsiokas et al. 在美国国家科学院院刊打开访问。)

这意味着,这些骨头从古墓 II, 其中 Antikas 和永利 Antikas 认为那些菲利普和受伤的斯基泰人武士公主, 要解释. Bartsiokas 和他的同事得出结论,这些必须是腓力三世 Arridhaeus 的遗体 (腓力二世的儿子和亚历山大大帝的兄弟) 和他的妻子欧律狄刻, 虽然这种认同似乎是基于历史信息,而不是任何特定的骨骼证据. 他们还认为,一些考古文物古墓 II 中可能有属于亚历山大大帝自己.

而 Bartsiokas 和他的同事喇叭这些新的解释作为鉴定这些骸骨的最后单词, Antikas 不是相信. 在一封信给编辑的美国国家科学院院刊, 从墓仍然 Antikas,Bartsiokas 和他的同事并没有充分发表骨骼肌的事实表示关切, 其中的 Antikas 发现,包括至少七个人,以及动物残骸. 墓的鉴定我作为菲利普的住户, 克娄巴特拉, 和他们的新生儿不够支持的证据, 根据 Antikas, 并不是结论性的.

而不是 Bartsiokas 和同事们对这个令人着迷的墓有最后一个字, Antikas argues for the need for carbon-14 dating and DNA analysis, neither of which has been done before on these remains.

With two interpretations of the same skeletal material at odds, it is perhaps best to withhold definitive conclusions until additional testing is done. Biochemical analyses are becoming increasingly common in bioarchaeological studies, and they are warranted in this case. 此外, publication of the skeletal remains in concert with the archaeological evidence could also produce more plausible interpretations.

Kristina Killgrove is a bioarchaeologist and university professor.

http://www.forbes.com

Amphipolis.gr | 城市创立的亚历山大大帝 – 亚历山大的城市基金会

亚历山大的城市基金会

亚历山大 ·
亚历山大 ·

亚历山大 ·‘s biographer Plutarch of Chaeronea states that 亚历山大大帝 founded no less than seventy towns, 其中东部的希腊文化的重要中心. 通过这些基础, 圣人之海罗尼亚暗示, 的 马其顿 conqueror changed the nature of his oriental subjects from barbarians into civilized people.

This in exaggerated. As far as we know, Alexander founded some twenty towns: the real Greek towns, poleis, which Plutarch must have had in mind, the permanent military garrisons or katoikiai, and the temporary military settlements, phrouria. Other towns were simply repopulated or just renamed.

  1. Alexandrupolis: founded in 340 by the crown prince. This was a really Greek city, built among the Maedians, a tribe on the banks of the Strymon. It must have been somewhere in the neighborhood of modern Sandanski in Bulgaria.
  2. Alexandria in Troas: a town near Troy, founded in the Spring of 334. It may have been founded by one of Alexander’s successors.
  3. Alexandria by the Latmus: a town in Caria, maybe founded as a garrison or military settlement in the winter of 333. 可能, it was founded by one of the successors of Alexander, who named it to the former king.
  4. Alexandria near Issus: Probably a permanent garrison where veterans of the battle of Issus could begin a new life, together with local inhabitants. Modern Iskenderun in Turkey.
  5. Tyre: repopulated with Greek emigrants and natives in 332/331, together with a permanent Macedonian garrison.
  6. Gaza: repopulated with European emigrants and natives in 331, together with a permanent Macedonian garrison.
  7. 亚历山德里亚: the site was chosen in January 330; the city was founded on 7 4 月. This was an entirely Graeco-Macedonian city, although there was also a native quarter and a Jewish quarter. The Jews and natives were second-class citizens (text).
  8. 亚历山德里亚Aria: perhaps, the Arian capital Artacoana was repopulated with natives and Macedonian veterans in September 330. It was probably meant as a permanent garrison. Alternatively, this was a completely new town. Modern Herât in Afghanistan.
  9. Prophthasia in Drangiana: the Drangian capital Phrada was just renamed in October 330; “ProphthasiameansAnticipation”. Modern Farâh in Afghanistan.
  10. 亚历山德里亚Arachosia: the Arachosian capital Kapisa was repopulated with natives and Macedonian veterans in the winter of 330/329. It was a permanent garrison. Modern Kandahâr in Afghanistan, which still bears Alexander’s name (derived from Iskandariya, the Arabic and Persian rendering of “亚历山大 ·”).
  11. Alexandria in the Caucasus: 的 Gandarian capital Kapiša-kaniš was repopulated with 4,000 natives and 3,000 Greek and Macedonian veterans in March 329. It was a permanent garrison or a Greek city, although many settlers felt that it was a punitive colony. Modern Chârikâr near Kabul in Afghanistan.
  12. Alexandria Eschatê: founded in the Summer of 329 as a permanent garrison on the Jaxartes (Syrdar’ya). Settled with Macedonian and Greek veterans and native serfs. Modern Khodzent in Tajikistan.
  13. 亚历山德里亚阿姆河: refoundation of a Persian city, settled with Greek and Iranian veterans and native serfs. Probably modern Ai Khanum in Afghanistan. Probably founded in the Spring of 328.
  14. Six cities north of the Oxus. Populated with native prisoners of war who served as serfs for the Macedonian soldiers. Meant as permanent garrisons, together forming a kind of wall against the northern tribes, 的 Sacae. One of these cities may be identical to modern Termez in Uzbekistan.
  15. 亚历山德里亚Margiana: refoundation of a Persian city in the oasis of Mary in modern Turkmenistan. Settled with Macedonian, Greek and Iranian veterans and native serfs.
  16. Arigaeum: the Aspasian capital was repopulated with natives and Macedonian veterans in the Spring of 326. It was a permanent garrison. Modern Nawagai in Pakistan. In the neighborhood were several temporary military settlements: Bazira, Ora, 和 Massaga.
  17. Nicaea殒命: twin foundation of permanent garrisons on opposite banks of the Hydaspes (Jhelum), founded in May 326 on the battle field. Settled with Greek, 马其顿, and Iranian veterans and natives. Modern Jhelum in Pakistan? The towns had large dockyards, which suggests that they were meant as a center commerce.
  18. Alexandria on the Hyphasis: founded in July 326 on the eastern border of Alexander’s empire. Settled with veterans of unknown origin.
  19. Alexandria on the Indus: founded in February 325 on the confluence of the IndusAcesines (Chenab), probably on the site of an older, Persian settlement. Settled with Thracian veterans and natives. Uch in Pakistan. It had large dockyards, which suggests that it was meant as a center commerce.
  20. Another town on the Indus: founded in the Spring of 325 among the Indian Sogdians. Probably a temporary military station north of Rohri.
  21. Patala (“naval base”) 或 Xylinepolis (“wooden city”): temporary military settlement, founded in July 325 at the place of an earlier, Indian town. Vacated after September 325. Modern Bahmanabad, 75 kilometers north-east of Hyderabad.
  22. Rhambacia: a town among the Oreitians that was fortified by 钟爱Leonnatus in the Autumn of 325. If it was meant as a permanent garrison, it was soon vacated. Modern Bela in Pakistan.
  23. Alexandria in Carmania: if this city was founded by Alexander (and not by 塞琉古), it must have been a permanent garrison founded in January 324. Perhaps modern Golâshkerd in Iran.
  24. Alexandria in Susiana: not far from the mouth of the Tigris. Probably settled with Macedonian, Greek and Iranian veterans and natives. Later known as Spasinou Charax. In the neighborhood of Al Qurnah in Iraq.

These were the towns that were founded by Alexander. Most of them are military settlements, where Macedonian and Greek veterans were left. They were not happy, so far from the Mediterranean, and on at least two occasionsboth after a report of Alexander’s deaththe homesick veterans decided to go home.

http://www.livius.org

Amphipolis.gr | 10 你可能还不知道亚历山大大帝和他的军队的有趣事实

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_3

我们重弹如何 古代斯巴达 吹嘘严格的纪律被灌输在他们的公民的军队. 但对古希腊的北部边缘的另一个'小'希腊的国最终设法使其横扫全球的索赔没有其他“文明”希腊城邦都不能夸. 当然,我们谈论的古代马其顿, 以及他们如何进行他们的传奇战役上大多数已知的世界 - 所有马其顿王国的亚历山大三世的英明领导下, (或 MEGAS亚历山德罗浩). 所以, 无需再费周折, 让我们看看十大惊人事实你可能不知道亚历山大大帝和他的令人难以置信的军队.

1) 大多数马其顿开始了为贫困农牧民, 直到亚历山大的父亲训练他们 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_1

我们以前谈过 大战 希腊和波斯. 而在如此灾难性的范围和英雄事迹, 马其顿 仍然是一个相对不重要回水到更大的地缘政治局势 - 主要是由于其较小的战略重要性 (在北方). 事实上, 所谓马其顿状态看似温和的起源在朦胧笼罩, 大部分土地的人口是在公元前5世纪的农村牧民. 在这方面, 最南风城市化的希腊人都把马其顿居民是半野蛮谁住在当时著名的文明世界的边缘.

然而, 通过后来的伯罗奔尼撒战争 (斯巴达和雅典之间展开) 在公元前5世纪的最新部分, 马其顿国王已经开始进行了改善该国的经济公益项目. 但它是伟大的菲利普二世 (亚历山大的父亲) 从谁开始他的统治 359 公元前, 并取得了令人难以置信的军事改革,这是马其顿改造成一个未来的超级大国. 其中的一个改革的最具代表性的特征是希腊甲兵方阵进入的演变 - 一个军事战略是在一个军人的个人实力更强调军队形成 (一个经典的战术最终被后来的罗马人掌握). 有意思的是, 菲利普本人被4世纪初的底比斯军队成功的启发, 相对于著名的斯巴达和雅典的“血统”; 甚至有宏伟的计划入侵波斯 (之前,他被暗杀).

任何状况之下, 菲利普的有组织马其顿国家及其军事巨大贡献已被提到 - 即使是在他自己的一生, 在当时的历史当代声称塞奥彭普斯“欧洲从未之前生产的人,如菲利普”.

2) 马其顿纪律非常严格,它甚至禁止服用洗温水澡 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_2

该方阵作为形成要求其每个乘员士兵的个人纪律和坚韧 - 从Polyaenus件历史轶事 (第2个世纪的作家马其顿) 与菲利普如何使他的人在游行 30 英里一天, 他们所有的武器和盔甲. 这种野蛮的军事方法的维护需要一定程度的严谨钻井和自我约束. 为此, 一个特定的场景涉及高级Tarantine骑兵军官 (可能是从一个强大的希腊城市称赞意大利西海岸) 谁是毫不客气地剥夺他的军衔为刚刚在温水洗澡.

简单的足够理由是 (根据Polyaenus)-

......因为他不明白马其顿的方式, 人,其中甚至没有谁刚生完孩子的女人沐浴在温暖的水中.

而且好像这样严厉的措施还不够, 方阵的各部队不得不亲自携带至少重规定 30 在活动日 (这也被后来的罗马军团采取的做法). 此外, 军队的机动性和自给自足是大大增加通过减少公务员的数量 (或营地的追随者) - 这是减少到一个,每十个人.

3) 亚历山大有一组 200 个人同伴的除了知名的伙友骑兵 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army

虽然菲利普有效地钻出马其顿到一个令人难以置信的战斗力量, 亚历山大 · (最棒的) 赋予他的继承与军队的威严和pompousness的空气. 其中一个这种性质润泽的显眼方面是沉重的冲击骑兵的诱导成传统上不为它的骑兵战术闻名的希腊主要力量. 作为。。而被知道 hetairoi 或“同伴”, 这些骑兵是一般从马其顿贵族和贵族派生. 然而, 亚历山大大帝更进一步通过合并的另一个核心组 '同伴' 这已经精英组内. 这些精兵也被称为国王的个人朋友 - 根据许多古代资料.

为此, 个人同伴坚持这个词的真正含义 - 在各种情况下伴随亚历山大, 无论是在厚厚的战斗或在休闲狩猎会议. 事实上, 亚历山大与他自己的军事建制兄弟的魅力是如此之大,他自己经常穿着一个同伴骑兵团的制服. 当然现在, 这种“正常”官样只装在和平时期只穿着 (与规划), 并有利于精细的礼服在实际战斗是回避.

4) 亚历山大著名的方阵实际上是由比较轻装甲步兵 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_4

再来一次, 根据Polyaenus“账户的马其顿军事训练, 的 方阵步兵的 头盔供给 (kranos), 光盾 (果冻), 油渣 (knemides) 和长派克 (Sarissa的). 这样可以从项目的这个小名单中云集, 盔甲是明显缺失. 甚至后 100 亚历山大多年的死, 有没有装甲系统去他的继任国军队方阵账户. 从这样的文学资料, 一个假设可以提出来 - 希腊和马其顿军队完全放弃了对他们的重型青铜胸甲, 而是选择了 亚麻胸甲, 从亚麻粘层做了一个轻甲.

有趣的是, Polyaenus的其中一个帐户意味着亚历山大本人如何武装谁曾与一个逃离战场的男人 hemithorakion - 半装甲仅覆盖所述主体的前部, 让士兵不会背对敌人. 任何状况之下, 金属胸衣本来不必要的部队在守卫森严方阵的追尾行列 - 这一定是欢迎古指挥官谁是通常是在资金和设备短期战术上的优势.

5) 亚历山大的“无薪”步兵前往不止 20,870 英里他的亚洲竞选 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_5

先前在列表, 我们已经谈到了严格的纪律是如何部分和包裹亚历山大的马其顿军队的, 这是很少在其他古代文化的接近见过的质量. 这种内在的纪律的扩展,可从他们的令人瞠目结舌的壮举被理解. 为此, 根据历史学家做了一个计算 西奥多Ayrault道奇, 谁曾在参加亚历山大步兵 336 BC和随后展开他的亚洲束缚运动, 曾前往多 20,870 英里 (或 33,400 公里) 由亚历山大时间呼吸他最后在巴比伦 (在 323 公元前). 所以, 上的平均, 每一个这些人涵盖了一个令人印象深刻 1,605 英里 (或 2,570 公里) 每年! 和, 当翻译成georgraphical条款, 许多马其顿退伍军人的可能都声称穿越河流众多,包括尼罗河 (在埃及), 幼发拉底河和底格里斯河 (在伊拉克), 阿姆河 (塔吉克斯坦), 锡尔河 (乌兹别克斯坦) 与梧桐 (在巴基斯坦).

还应当指出的是马其顿国王以实际支付的军事力量很可能没有发展任何手段. 所以, 这种货币困境一部分是通过让士兵参加,通常涉及掠夺敌人的城市掠夺解决. 但是,即使在这样的情况下, 步兵总是给出的“战利品”的远较少部分比他们的同行骑兵.

5) 亚历山大的军队建立了一个临时通道在海水只是为了有效地围攻提尔的海岛城市 332 公元前!

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_6

在事物的宏伟计划, 的 轮胎的围攻 可能是在较小的事件在亚历山大的辉煌 (但短) 职业生涯,作为一个征服者. 但其本身的遭遇证明亚历山大怎么一个令人难以置信的患者战略家 - 这是在战场上形成鲜明对比,他的鲁莽恶毒 (作为来自马其顿的骑兵楔状结构明显。在那里亚历山大放在自己的'矛'的最前沿). 任何状况之下, 轮胎是一个重要和亲近坚不可摧的商业中心, 凭借其“孤岛”的位置和巨大的城墙防御 - 这是 50 =英尺高,有的地方, 根据历史学家阿里安! 所以, 亚历山大试图通过实际下令他的军队建造堤道来对抗这个城市的迷人的防守范围 (或痣) 在海上,将直接导致岛上定居.

入侵的希腊部队并设法构建 (甚至扩大) 从废墟围堤, 岩石和木材,甚至从它最初是沿海岸位于提尔的老弃市被打捞上岸. 该围堤成为希腊攻城塔由总部设在轮胎部队采取大胆反击的冲击一场激烈的遭遇战场面. 然而, 在几天内, 亚历山大是能够组装,最终措手不及轮胎船的船队扩张 - 从而导致城墙的一小部分的冲压和违约. 做轮胎毫不客气地投降这个战术突破, 特别是通过硬化的马其顿精锐步兵被恶毒攻击后 (也被称为 hypaspists). 并在随后的后果, 据说在 6,000 居民被亚历山大的军队屠杀 (与 2,000 被钉在十字架上), 而额外 30,000 人被卖为奴隶.

6) 残酷的惩罚在亚历山大的军队也包括大象被践踏 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_7

更严格的纪律是不是从其他当时的希腊人当代分离势力的马其顿军队的唯一因素; 亚历山大的phalangites也不得不忍受在军队上考虑他们的特权地位更严格的纪律处分. 在这方面, 骑兵军官常常受到惩罚更加严厉比他们的同行步兵 - 用行动 (像鞭笞) 被当作​​轻罪范围从温水洗澡邀请笛女孩入营.

像兵变但是严重的罪行往往导致死刑判决, 莫过于亚历山大本人给出其他. 在某些情况下, 罪犯通过在他们投掷石块和标枪处死. 在其他情况下, 更严峻的措施,开展了 - 就像扔囚犯成河与收紧链结合自己的身体. 然而, 惩罚一个特定的事件突出 (由Quintus的库尔提乌斯提到鲁弗斯), 当亚历山大的继任者 (只是在他死后) 点了 300 叛变者大象的脚下践踏 - 这也是在全军面前.

8) 亚历山大本人可能有一个妄想症 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_8

虽然有反对亚历山大没有参数是历史上最伟大的军事战略家和领导者之一, 他本人生前不同时期从看似宏伟的妄想. 其中一个主要的原因,这个神面向复杂行为模式也许亚历山大的童年时代是由于他的母亲奥林匹亚的心理效应. 她很公然声称亚历山大是宙斯的儿子, 据说以后的梦想她的子宫被击中雷声. 这个非同寻常的理论显然甚至阿蒙在锡瓦的预言家“证明”亚历山大, 埃及. 作为一个结果, 亚历山大开始认真写明自己的神宙斯阿蒙的儿子 - 这是从几个明显 古银币 描绘亚历山大手持霹雳.

亚历山大大帝也看到了自己是合法继承者的传说阿契美尼德皇帝后,他的马其顿军队征服古代波斯王国的长度和呼吸. 反过来如此骄人的影响尚未成就推动亚历山大重新建立许多波斯风情, 像波斯皇室装束与党的崇尚打扮 proskynesis. 后者提到的实践entailed弯曲或一个人更高级别的前叩头自己的传统波斯行为. 只要说。。。就够了, “民主”希腊人反对这样的观点, ,因此被许多亚历山大的自大狂的决定疏远.

9) 亚历山大是一个熟练的音乐家和辩论; 但也沉迷于酒精 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_9

据普鲁塔克, 通过十岁, 亚历山大已经在玩七弦琴相当的专家, 辩论甚至背诵 - 所有这一切都在他父亲的宾客面前有时表现. 事实上, 无论诗歌和音乐继续,甚至在他的晚年生活,激发亚历山大 - 象酒精量惊人的消耗. 为此, 喝酒和开派对来很自然地给年轻的马其顿一般, 特别是在他的扩展运动和狩猎旅行.

有关亚历山大的爱好为“聚会”一次一个特定的事件来自于账户的普鲁塔克, 其中,著名作家继续描述马其顿军队的所谓酒神行为. 他提到如何亚历山大和他的军队通过俾路支省的灾难性印度竞选回国后 - 在这个游行的士兵过剩和颓废的各种形式参加. 亚历山大本人坐在高台子被他的同伴包围 - 所有披着鲜花和享受的高脚杯; 而这个庞大的平台慢慢八匹马拉. 由于普鲁塔克 继续

不屏蔽是可见, 没有头盔, 不是矛, 但随着杯子和饮用水角和酒壶整个游行的士兵们从浸木桶巨大的葡萄酒和混合,碗,并承诺彼此, 一些人认为他们沿游行, 别人躺着; 而管和长笛, 弦乐器和歌曲, 女性的哭声狂欢, 充满丰富的音乐的每一个地方. 然后, 在此紊乱,零零落落的游行有也跟着发酒疯的许可证的运动, 仿佛自己酒神出席并进行随缘. 此外, 当他来到Gedrosia皇宫, 他再一次给了他的军队的时间休息和高举节日. 我们被告知, 太, 当年他是在观看载歌载舞某些竞赛, 是用酒以及加热, 而他最喜欢的, 巴高斯, 赢得了歌曲和舞蹈奖, 接着, 所有在他的节日阵列, 通过戏剧传递和亚历山大的身边坐下了; 在见票时的马其顿拍掌,大声吩咐王亲吻胜利者, 直到最后,他伸出胳膊对他,温柔地亲吻了他.

10) 有巴基斯坦的一个小镇,亚历山大的马后,最初被命名!

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_10

鉴于他的伟大和倾向的妄想神化自己, 亚历山大估计有大约洗礼 70 定居点 (从非洲到亚洲) 在他自己的名字. 当今的亚历山大在埃及繁荣的城市代表作为一个佐证个性促进模式. 然而, 亚历山大与他的令人羡慕的成就痴迷超出了他自己的名字, 也包括他最喜欢的坐骑 - 布西发拉斯. 于是, 亚历山大命名的定居点之一 (本) 巴基斯坦亚历山卓·布西发拉斯或 殒命, 为纪念他心爱的马谁在Hydaspes的来之不易的战斗中因伤致死 326 公元前.

仿佛通常的情况, 历史学家们仍不能确定此定居的准确位置 - 与一些假设到它的位置是围绕河流杰赫勒姆, 有些臆断它的位置是沿着连接到塔克西拉杰赫勒姆道路 (在后一种情况下, Phalia的乡亲有时声称自己解决的原名是殒命).

荣誉奖 -
亚历山大有两个不同颜色的眼睛 -

Facts_Alexander_the_Great_Macedonian_army_11

大多数账户 亚历山大 · 他描绘成一个有白皙的皮肤,在大多数他的后半生,由于广泛的军事竞选变成红润. 他也有一个胡子刮得干干净净的脸 (从而使他从平时胡子拉碴的马其顿人脱颖而出), 而且很可能拥有一个相当短,身体结实, 一个稍微扭脖子和刺耳的声音. 然而, 希腊历史学家阿里安说,亚历山大又增加了另一种迷人的故事“一只眼睛黑如夜晚和一个蓝色的天空。”后来的历史学家 (即彼得绿色) 在此观察同意, 从而表明,亚历山大可能有被称为虹膜异色症的条件. 和, 加到所有这些物理属性, 亚历山大也可能已经放言愉快狐臭 - 在普鲁塔克的“贵族希腊人和罗马人的生活显然是提及,“写 400 亚历山大年去世后.

http://www.hexapolis.com

Amphipolis.gr | 保罗墓之谜.

tomb-greece-amphipolis-001_86275_990x742 在希腊一座神秘的皇家陵墓可能持有一个亲戚或关联的亚历山大大帝, 这里描绘在来自庞贝城的马赛克. 照片由 Araldo 德 • 卢卡, Corbis

希瑟 · 普林格尔, 为国家地理杂志

悬念上升为考古学家筛选,寻找埋在神秘的保罗墓在现在的希腊北部与排场的人的身份的线索. 研究小组认为,该墓应建为某个非常亲近亚历山大大帝 — — 他的母亲, 奥林匹亚; 他的妻子之一, 罗克; 他最喜欢的将军之一; 或可能是他儿时的朋友和爱人, 钟爱.

过去三个月, 考古学家卡捷琳娜 · 派里斯泰里和她的团队提出了一系列的诱人的墓中发现, 从雕刻巧妙地描绘的希腊女神珀耳塞福涅绑架马赛克地板年轻妇女的形状中的列. 墓的昂贵艺术品都可以追溯到动荡的年代,在亚历山大的死亡附近大, 并指出存在的一个重要的人.

几乎可以肯定葬在埃及亚历山大. 但最后休息的地方 — — 和它们可能包含的丰富的历史和遗传数据 — — 很多他的家庭成员是未知. 在保罗开挖势必会添加新的一章历史的亚历山大大帝和他的家人, 一个王朝,沉浸在阴谋, 阴谋, 和流血作为受欢迎的电视系列权力的游戏 》 中虚构的兰尼斯特. 亚历山大的大家庭中, "国王或统治者,他最终死在他的床是罕见,"说菲利普 · 弗里曼, 一位传记作家亚历山大大帝和古典学院历史学家路德迪科拉, 爱荷华州.

宫的阴谋

要了解这些宫殿阴谋, 一个人必须开始与亚历山大的父亲, 腓力二世, 谁即位的古代马其顿在 359 公元前. 在时间, 马其顿是古代希腊北部的谦虚山领土, 但菲利普有远大的梦想. 他变成一个纪律严明的军事机器了马其顿的军队从一群乌合之众的战士, 和他武装它与新的致命武器, 长矛, 为了让敌军从四面八方向他的方阵的长矛.

http://derwombat.net/2015/05/25/the-mystery-of-the-amphipolis-tomb/

Amphipolis.gr | "亚里斯多德 2400 年"

世界大会的邀请

aristo

亚里斯多德 2400 年"

5 月 23-28, 2016

"跨学科研究中心亚里斯多德,” 萨洛尼卡亚里士多德大学宣布 世界大会"亚里斯多德 2400 年" 这是将举行 萨洛尼卡的亚里士多德大学, 在 古代 Stageira, 出生地亚里斯多德和 古代 Mieza, 亚里斯多德在那里教亚历山大大帝的地方.

亚里斯多德, 那些出生在 Stageira, 马其顿, 在 384 公元前, 行使对人类思维的持续影响 2.400 年!

他是通用的哲学家, 其作品已上留下不可磨灭的印记 古典, 希腊化时代希腊罗马 世界, 对 拜占廷 学术传统, 对 阿拉伯 世界, 对 中世纪 欧洲和继续行使对知识者生活的影响 当代的西方文明.

他是的哲学家的作品遍布范围最广的主题, 如覆盖所有主要分支的哲学 逻辑, 辩证, 范畴三段论, 形而上学, 政治道德哲学, 修辞, 诗学 和令人印象深刻的方式延伸到所有基本科学领域相关的领域, 如 物理, 生物学, 动物学, 植物学, 分类, 数学, 气象, 天文学, 地质学, 心理学, 医学, 经济学, 人文, 法律 政治科学, 经济学, 健康科学 甚至 技术科学.

会议的目的是向 提前奖学金 亚里斯多德的工作的所有方面; 一项工作的影响 在销量在人类思想史上是影响力的独一无二的; 一项工作, 继续存在 在西方文明的知识的演变, 从而成为必不可少的组成部分的其 文化遗产. 我们认为这项工作值得研究不仅为其 长期影响, 但也 为其关联的 21st 世纪. 此外, 在亚里斯多德工作的见解, 鉴于 当代科学的新发现, 可以使我们能够构建 概念桥梁科学思想与哲学反思; 它还可以提供范例 卓越跨学科 方法 知识.

主办单位邀请文件 亚里士多德的哲学的各个方面. 特别令人欢迎的是 跨学科 多学科 方法 Stageirite 的工作, 以及作为方法 调查今天其相关性和其潜力,能带领我们走向更深层次的理解的概念, 想法和我们自己的时代,在全球范围内的问题.

元帅 Sfendoni Mentzou
主席
"跨学科研究中心亚里斯多德,"身份验证
世界大会"亚里斯多德 2400 年"

http://aristotleworldcongress2016.web.auth.gr

Amphipolis.gr | 这一发现的神秘的沉没城市伊拉克利翁

它被认为是一个神话般的城市, 直到当然它实际上被发现. 一些人认为它的发现改变了历史,正如我们所知它永远. 伊拉克利翁古代城市是众所周知的许多古希腊哲学家, 其中希罗多德, 谁提到这个古老的城市在众多的著作, 虽然直到十九世纪,这个城市的存在没有被证实. 随着伊拉克利翁的发现, 解决了数不清的谜,我们设法这么多更多地了解我们的过去,通过这个古老的城市.

因为大多数的令人难以置信的发现, 这太意外时作海洋考古学家 Franck 格力一直在寻找在尼罗河战役中沉没的军舰 1798 沿着亚历山德里亚海岸属于拿破仑, 就在他认为那里没有什么时候, 他遇到了一位海洋考古学家可以使最重要的发现之一.

埃及人和希腊之间, 这座城市被称为 Heraklionpor Thonis. 它被认为已经繁荣帝国公元前七世纪至 12 下午. 这座城市的位置是不能说亚历山德里亚海岸距离湾.

古代的伊拉克利翁的重要性

就像许多其他城市,传奇的帝国, 伊拉克利翁消失得无影无踪, 千百年来迟, 它的财宝浮出水面,数百万人观看了惊人的发现,带回伊拉克利翁的生活. 在物品中发现了巨型雕像、 古埃及女神伊希斯, 快乐和数字的神秘和未知的埃及法老, 他们都被发现在一个出人意料的好条件. 数以百计的小雕像还发现了那曾经属于埃及艳后. 几十种宗教文物清点发现,属于古埃及伊希斯等的最高神, 欧西里斯和鲁斯. 水下考古学家还碰到几个石棺与动物献祭给 Amun Gereb 木乃伊, 埃及人的至高无上的神. 但也许最重要的发现是与甲骨文和象形文字的众多支柱, 这根据考古学家们在良好的条件.


研究人员已成功找出这个古老的沉没城市的主要部分, 黄金板块中希腊的语言讲的托勒密三世的记录 (282-222 一个. C), 谁恢复神龛和 (或) 致力于赫尔克里士的寺庙. 黑色花岗岩石碑还发现几乎完好无损; 研究人员设法在得知伊拉克利翁这个古老的城市的希腊名称, 但对于古埃及人, 这座城市被称为 Thonis. 历史学家认为伊拉克利翁古市位于连接半岛的战略地位. 研究人员发现了众多的码头和古代的锚点.

古代埃及 Thonis 法老, 因为它指, 被认为是由于其地理位置的主要港口. 就是在那里, 主要做贸易的地方, 在那里游客形成希腊和航行到其他国家. 考古学家发现超过六百年古董锚的各种形状和超过六十沉船可追溯到公元前二世纪第六. 根据格力高, 古代水手会扔他们锚入水中后长途旅行作为供品向神.

格力发现许多雕像, 其中, 在靖国神社附近献给欧西里斯, 一大批文物被发现由粉红色花岗岩. 其他对象及雕像亦被发现, 但一次引起了考古学家的注意了三个巨大的雕像,做成粉红色花岗岩, 描绘一位国王, 女王/王后和生育之神, 丰度和尼罗河洪水泛滥. 这表明的重视寺曾经在古代伊拉克利翁.

另一个发现持有重要的有意义的对象就做成粉红色花岗岩石碑, 用双语作品描述的伊拉克利翁圣曾在 Ptolomaic 统治下的思想意义.

伊拉克利翁就像亚特兰蒂斯消失了吗?

井, 许多大城市就像伊拉克利翁, 亚历山德里亚和 Canoups 被摧毁了灾难性的自然灾难. 来自剑桥大学的研究人员对地中海板块进行了研究和发现一年一个地质断层就能带来大地震和海啸 365 广告. 据科学家, 地震这类结构在过去地区可能再次发生,因为他们计算,由于地质特征, 该区域是容易发生灾难性的地震每 800 年.

伊拉克利翁的命运是由其他遭受类似灾难数百或数千年前的古老城市共享, 他们中的一些古代城市亚历山大, 创立的亚历山大大帝在 331 公元前和 Canopus 古市.

就像这座城市被发现的机会, 海洋考古学家也许会, 一天, 此外发现传说中的亚特兰蒂斯市/大陆, 谁可能位于某个位置在水之下, 等待再一次苏醒, 历史和考古学为良好的以质取胜.

图像源: © Franck 格力高/喜基金会, 照片: Christoph Gerigk

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